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   Course Title    Transformation of the Political System of Kyrgyzstan
Lecturer    Ashakeeva Gulayim
Institution    Institute of Public Administration and Social Research
Country    Kyrgyztan


This course is prepared for the students of the 3rd and 4th advanced courses in Political sciences, International relations and Public administration. The course plays an important role in the overall degree curriculum as it is innovative and does not have analogues.

Students’ prerequisite knowledge must include the theoretical basics of political science, political analysis, as well as the modern history of the Kyrgyz Republic after gaining independence.

Aim of the course:

-to give students knowledge and understanding of actual issues of transformation of the political system of Kyrgyzstan in the framework of democratization and to develop the practical skills of analysis of political processes in transit societies.

Duration of the course: 9 lectures and 9 seminars (36 hours total)

Lecture 1: Theoretical Basics of Political System Transformation (2 hours)

Typology of political changes (functioning, development and regression). Theory of political modernization. Reasons for transformation of political systems and dynamics of innovations. Impact of transformation on social-political structure, cultural values and priorities, behavior of political elite, opposition and masses. Characteristics of social-political crisis and system modernization.

Easton D.D. An Approach to the Analysis of Political System // Political System and Change. – Princeton- N. Y., 1966..

Lecture 2: Post-communist Legacy and the Problems of Political Transition in the

Newly Independent States (2 hours)

Reasons and preconditions for disintegration of the Soviet empire. Political, economic and socio-cultural characteristics of post-communist legacy. Instability and imbalance of transition processes in the Newly Independent States. Crisis of identity, participation, legitimacy and distribution of cultural and material values in the post-soviet society.

Lecture 3: Development of the Public Administration System of Kyrgyzstan:

Experience of Ten-Year Reform (4 hours)

Constitutional-legal foundations of the public administration system. The principle of separation of powers in the Kyrgyz practice. Difficulties of formation of the Institute of Presidency. Evolution of Jogorku Kenesh as a major legislative body. "Legendary" Parliament: reasons behind and results of the 1993 crisis. Successes and failures of public administration reform and decentralization of powers.

Lecture 4: Political Parties and Social Movements in Kyrgyzstan (2 hours)

Formation of the multi-party system of Kyrgyzstan. Typology of political parties in Kyrgyzstan. Characteristics of major political parties of the republic. Election of Jogorku Kenesh of 1995 and 2000: analysis of major trends. Peculiarities of electoral behavior in Kyrgyzstan. Activity of social organizations as important factor of civil society development. Participation of political parties and social organizations in public policy formation.

Lecture 5: Political Elite of Kyrgyzstan (2 hours)

Characteristics of modern political elite in Kyrgyzstan (differentiation, corporativism) and impact of socio-cultural non-similarity and regional political clans. Typology of Kyrgyz political elite (executive, legislative elites, leaders of political parties and factions). Trends in transformation of elite in Kyrgyzstan in 1991-1995 (ideological weakness), 1995-2002 (strengthening of horizontal mobility of elite, renaissance of nomenclature).

Lecture 6: Political Opposition and Pressure Groups (2 hours)

Role of political opposition in the modernization of the political system: negative and positive aspects.

Kulov, Beknazarov, Usenov - victims of political mudslinging?

Peculiarities of branch pressure groups in Kyrgyzstan. 4th power (mass-media) in Kyrgyz politics: problems of interaction. Case of trial between the President Akaev and Res Publica journal.

Lecture 7: Problems of the Development of Political Culture of Kyrgyzstan (2 hours)

Political culture as a structural element of the political system (notion, typology, concepts). Kyrgyz political culture: between the soviet legacy and western experience. Characteristics of soviet political culture (collectivism, conformism, paternalism, etatism). Principles of liberal-democratic political culture (pluralism, individualism, civil society). Eclecticism, instability and contradictions of the new political conscience and its influence on Kyrgyz mentality.

Lecture 8: Prospects and Challenges of Political Modernization of the Kyrgyz Republic (2 hours)

Problems and conditions of maintenance of political stability, development of new political institutes, formation of competent and highly professional elite. Challenges to liberalization, democratization and consolidation and new prospects for the political system of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Seminars: 18 hours

Teaching methods:

The course applies both traditional and interactive methods (e.g. debates, brainstorming, group modeling, case-studies) that significantly increase the efficiency of study processes and the level of mastering the course. For instance, the seminar on political parties and social organizations includes a debate between the students divided into several groups and representing different political parties of Kyrgyzstan. In the course of the debate students have to present programs of their parties and attract the audience to vote for them.

The course also includes a written work on one of the corresponding issues and a final seminar is held in the form of a practical conference in which students present their works for other teachers and students.

Evaluation:

Course participation-(15 %)

1st module test -(30 %)

2nd module test -(30 %)

Research essay -(25 %)

Total:100%



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