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   Course Title    Building a Multicultural Political Nation in Latvia
Lecturer    Reinis Zobens
Institution    Latvia University of Agriculture
Country    Latvia


The course is prepared for the study program Sociology of Organisations and Public Administration at the Institute of Humanities at the Latvia University of Agriculture.

The goal of the course is to acquaint students with theoretical and actual models of managing diversity in the plural societies. A dependant objective of this course is to reveal main problems concerning multicultural political nation building in Latvia.

During lectures students will be acquainted with the following topics:

1. Theoretical framework of multiculturalism
1.1. Multiculturalism as a status quo of contemporary liberal-democratic states
1.2. Definition of multiculturalism
1.3. Models of cultural pluralism, their differences
1.3.1. Multi-nation state model
1.3.2. Multi-ethnic state model
1.4. The rights of ethnic and minority groups in the perspective of multiculturalism
1.4.1. The right to self-government
1.4.2. The right that safeguards multi-ethnicity
1.4.3. The right to special representation
2. Liberal- democratic approach managing ethnocultural diversity or multiculturalism as politics
2.1. Prerequisites for building multicultural political nation in liberal - democratic state
2.1.1. "Politics of recognition"
2.1.2. The role of societal culture
2.1.3. Separation of public and private spheres
2.1.4. Ethnocultural justice
2.1.4.1. Towards national minorities
2.1.4.2. Towards immigrants
2.1.4.3. Towards ethno-religious groups
2.1.4.4. Towards marginal ethnic groups
3. Problems building a multicultural political nation
3.1. National identity
3.2. Collective and individual rights
3.3. Integration of ethnic minorities
3.4. The risk of secession
4. Traditions of multiculturalism in Latvia (1920-ies and 1930-ies)
4.1. Political representation
4.2. Education
4.3. Culture and language
5. Can the national politics of the Soviet Union be considered as multicultural?
5.1. Principles of Soviet national politics
5.2. Elimination of minority cultures
5.3. Language policy
6. The first indications of multiculturalism after the restoration of Latvian state independence
6.1. Adoption of the law on Latvia's national and ethnic group free development and their right to cultural autonomy
6.2. Language policy
6.3. Education system reform
6.4. Adoption of the integration program of society
7. Problems building a multicultural political nation in Latvia
7.1. International background
7.1.1. Commitments to human rights observation
7.1.2. Neighbouring with Russia
7.2. Problem defining national minorities and immigrants
7.3. National identity
7.4. Integration into the European Union


Reading list (including sources in latvian)

  1. Alund A., Schierup C.U., "Paradoxes of Multiculturalism", Avebury, Umea, 1991.
  2. Apine I., “Akulturacijas iespejas Latvija”, referats konferencei “Valsts Etnopolitika Latvija”, Riga, 1998.gada 15.-16.oktobri
  3. Apine I., “Baltkrievi Latvija”, Latvijas Zinatnu akademijas Filozofijas un sociologijas instituta Etnisko petijumu centrs, Riga, 1995.
  4. Brass P.R., "Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison", Sage Publications, London, 1991.
  5. Camilleri C. ed., "Difference and Cultures in Europe", Council of Europe Press, 1995.
  6. Catlaks G., “Pilsoniskas izglitibas merki un formas parejas sabiedribas: pasaules pieredze un Latvijas piemers”, referats konferencei “Valsts Etnopolitika Latvija”, Riga, 1998.gada 15.-16.oktobri
  7. “Cela uz saliedetu sabiedribu Eiropa: Latvijas galvenais uzdevums”, Konferences zinojums, Starptautiska konference 1998.gada 4.-5.maijs, Latvijas Arpolitikas instituts, 1998.
  8. “Cilvektiesibas Latvija 1998.gada”, Latvijas Cilvektiesibu un etnisko studiju centrs, SIA N.I.M.S., Riga, 1999.
  9. Connor W., "The National Question in Marxist- Leninist Theory and Strategy", Princeton University Press, 1984.
  10. Dribins L., “Etnisko minoritašu kulturautonomija sabiedribas integracijas procesa”, referats konferencei “Valsts Etnopolitika Latvija”, Riga, 1998.gada 15.-16.oktobri
  11. Dribins L., “Nacionalais Jautajums Latvija 1850-1940”, Filozofijas un sociologijas instituta Etnisko petijumu centrs, Riga, 1997.
  12. Dribins L., “Ukraini Latvija”, Latvijas Zinatnu akademijas Filozofijas un sociologijas instituta Etnisko petijumu centrs, Riga, 1995.
  13. Druviete I., “Language Situation and Language Policy in Latvia”, referats konferencei “Valsts Etnopolitika Latvija”, Riga, 1998.gada 15.-16.oktobri
  14. Goldmanis J., ”Mazakumtautibu Vesture Latvija” , Zvaigzne ABC, 1998.
  15. Goldmanis J., "Minority Deputies in the Saeima of the Republic of Latvia (1922-1934)", Humanities and Social Sciences Latvia, 2 (3), 1994.
  16. Gutmann A. (ed.), "Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition", Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1989.
  17. Horowitz D.L., "Ethnic Groups in Conflict", University of California Press, USA, 1985.
  18. Hutchinson J. and Smith A.D. (ed.), "Ethnicity", Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996.
  19. Hutchinson J. and Smith A.D. (ed.), "Nationalism", Oxford, 1994.
  20. Jekabsons E., “Poli Latvija”, Latvijas Zinatnu akademijas Filozofijas un sociologijas instituta Etnisko petijumu centrs, Riga, 1996.
  21. Karklins R., "Ethnopolitics and Transition to Democracy", The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, 1994.
  22. Karklins R., “Theories of Ethnic Integration and Developments in Latvia”, referats konferencei “Valsts Etnopolitika Latvija”, Riga, 1998.gada 15.-16.oktobri
  23. Kymlicka W., "Multicultural Citizenship: a Liberal Theory of Minority Rights", Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995.
  24. “Latvijas Cilvektiesibu un etnisko studiju centra apkartraksts”, Nr.1,2, februaris/marts un junijs/julijs, 1994
  25. “Latvijas liktengadi IV”, rakstu krajums, AVOTS, Riga, 1990.
  26. Leitans V., “Pretstaru cina. Latvija 1917.-1950.”, Avots, 1990.
  27. “Likums par Latvijas nacionalo un etnisko grupu brivu attistibu un tiesibam uz kulturas autonomiju.”, Zinotajs, Nr.21, 1991.gada 6.junijs
  28. LR Tieslietu ministrijas Nacionalo lietu nodala, “Nacionalas un Etniskas Grupas Latvija” informativs materials, Nacionalo lietu nodala, Riga, 1996.
  29. Muižnieks N., “The Baltic Popular Movements and the Disintegration of the Soviet Union”, dissertation, 1993.
  30. Multinacionalais kulturas centrs, “Multikulturalisms Latvija: teorija un prakse”, A.K.A., Daugavpils, 1996.
  31. “Nacionalas Attiecibas un Nacionala Politika Latvija”, Domas un vertejumi Latvijas Inteligences apvienibas XIX konference 1998.gada 4.aprili, Riga, 1998.
  32. Opalski M. (ed.), "Managing Diversity in Plural Societies", Forum Eastern Europe, Canada, 1998.
  33. Pabriks A., "Citizenship in Latvia: Ends or Means in the Context of Ethnic Policy", Aarhus University, Aarhus, 1994.
  34. Perotti A., "The Case for intercultural Education", Council of Europe Press, 1994.
  35. Report on the workshop held at Lohusalu 20.-30. October, 1994, "Human Rigths and Minorities in the New European Democracies: Educational and Cultural Aspects.", Council of Europe Press, NL, 1996.
  36. Rex J., "Ethnic Minorities in the Modern Nation State", Macmillan Press LTD, Great Britain, 1996.
  37. Rex J., "National Identity in the Democratic Multi-Cultural State", Paper delivered to the Joint Conference of the Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism held at the London School of economics, May 3rd, 1996.
  38. “Sabiedribas Integracija Latvija”, Valsts programmas koncepcija, a/s Preses nams, Riga, 1999.
  39. Smits E. D., “Nacionala Identitate”, Izdevnieciba AGB, 1997.
  40. Stranga A., “Ebreji un diktaturas Baltija (1926.- 1940.gads)”, SIA N.I.M.S., Riga, 1997.
  41. Šcerbinskis V., “Ienaceji no Talienes”, Nordik, Riga, 1998.
  42. "The Newsletter of the Latvian Center for Human Rights and Ethnic Studies", special issue devoted to minorities, Nr. 8/9, August – October 1996
  43. Vebers E. red., “Izglitiba 1998 – 2003”, Izglitibas attistibas strategiska programma, LR Izglitibas un zinatnes ministrija, 1998.
  44. Vebers E., “Latvijas Valsts un Etniskas Minoritates”, Latvijas Zinatnu akademijas Filozofijas un sociologijas instituta Etnisko petijumu centrs, Riga, 1997.
  45. Vebers E. (red.), “Pilsoniska Apzina”, IU Macibu apgads, 1998.
  46. Volkovs V., “Krievi Latvija”, Latvijas Zinatnu akademijas Filozofijas un sociologijas instituta Etnisko petijumu centrs, Riga, 1996.
  47. Wolf L., "Swiss Democracy: Possible Solutions to Conflict in Multicultural Societies", Macmillan Press LTD, Great Britain, 1994.
  48. Zeile P., “Nacionalo Minoritašu Kultura Latvijas Republika (20.-30.gadi)”, LR Izglitibas, kulturas un zinatnes ministrija, Riga, 1994.
  49. Zepa B., “Komunikacija ka politiskas integracijas nosacijums”, referats konferencei “Valsts Etnopolitika Latvija”, Riga, 1998.gada 15.-16.oktobri
  50. “Ziemelvalstu integracijas politika”, informativais zinojums, Ziemelu Ministru padomes seminars par integraciju Baltijas valstis 1998.gada 2.-4.decembris.
  51. Zile L.Z., “The Legal Framework of Minorities’ Policies in Latvia: Background Constitution, and the League of Nations”, Journal of Baltic studies, Vol. XI, Number 1, spring 1980
  52. Inglis C., "Multiculturalism: New Policy Responses to Diversity", MOST Policy papers 4, UNESCO, Paris, 1996.
  53. Morrow J.,"History of Political Thought", Macmillan Press, 1998.
  54. Birch A.H., "Nationalism and National Integration", Urwin Hyman, 1989.
  55. Edited by M Guibernau and J.Rex, "The Ethnicity Reader. Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Integration", Polity Press, 1999.
  56. Edited by T.Modood and P.Werbner, "The Politics of Multiculturalism in the New Europe", Zed Books, USA, 1997.
  57. Edited by C.Willet, "Theorizing Multiculturalism. AGuide to the Current Debate", Blackwell Publishers, 1998.



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