crc  .  syllabi collection  .  alumni syllabi  .  nationalism studies  .

   Course Title    Nations, Minorities and States in Central and South-Eastern Europe in the 20th Century
Lecturer    Zoltán Pálfy
Institution    Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca
Country    Romania


Description and Aims

Conceived in a fairly unusual manner, the course aims to deal with major socio-historical processes and political factors that have modeled the nationalism reflected in the fate of national minorities within the context of nation-states and/or multinational empires. The 20th century history of Central and South-Eastern Europe presents spectacular cases when the minority—majority relationship within a given geopolitical entity, that is, the state, is dramatically relativized. The course considers these turnovers and the related phenomena regarding both minority communities and the so-called state-forming majorities in a comparative, regionally based framework.

The selection of topics is aimed to meet the special needs of political science students. It is interdisciplinary in that it focuses on those analytical themes and parallels of history as an academic discipline that can most fruitfully enhance the professional insight characteristic to students' own field of specialization. Last but not least, the course encourages an open-minded and critical approach to historical topics and readings, hoping to deconstruct possible preconceptions, enmities, misinterpretations and to render matters of historiography within a dynamic, unorthodox scientific setup. The topics dealt with concentrate on a presentation of nation, minority or nationalism at work in the actual historical context of the compared regions, and does not propose to deal with them as purely theoretical issues. Still, there is literature listed among the recommended readings on such issues.

Seminars are expected to be of the case-study type, assuming greater depth of analysis and making it possible for the students to activate and develop their individual knowledge and intellectual background. In effect, they are "open lessons", markedly requiring students’ active participation. It should in this way be that lectures and seminars together construct a combined perspective on the discussed topics. A parallel rendering of the proposed themes is pursued: while lectures concentrate on Western views and literature (mostly in English), other readings (in students' native languages as well), seminars, case-studies and topics give an insight into regional self-perceptions as well.

Assessment

- one mid-term written examination in class, (15 %) covering, by free choice, the lecture-topics of the previous six weeks

- a take-home exam paper of up to 1500 words (25%). Three topics for it shall be announced at the end of the semester, students will have to chose one, the paper is to be handed in within a week of the topic announcement. Also by mid-term, class members shall have announced the title of their

- research paper up to 3000 words (35 %). Topics should be discussed with the teacher individually; once the outline is set up, a short public review of each should be carried out in class.

- seminar activity (class presence, familiarity with the readings, well-founded participation in the discussions) shall also count in grading (25 %). Reading ability in English is desirable, yet not indispensable.

A Note on Readings

Owing to the relative scarcity of specialized literature in this branch of specialization at Cluj, students shall benefit from a Reader containing all the materials eventually selected to be discussed in class, as well as a set of Basic Readings. The latter is designed as a bibliographical reserve, intended to help students' individual work (take-home and research papers). If so required, access to any of the reference materials on which the course is based shall be facilitated. The ensuing backup copy collection is to remain with the Faculty to enable future documentation. The bibliographical material hereby presented is intended to be considerably flexible in order that it encourages students in pursuing individual interests.

 

DETAILED LIST OF CLASS TOPICS

And List of Readings

Week 1. Central and South-Eastern Europe as Historical Regions: definitions, problem-areas. Competing Self-Assertions?

Batt, Judy. "Introduction: Defining Central and Eastern Europe." In Developments in Central and Eastern European Politics, edited by Stephen White, Judy Batt and Paul G. Lewis. Houndmills: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1998. 1-23.

Szucs, Jeno. “Vázlat Európa három történeti régiójáról.” [An outline of the three historical regions of Europe] In Bibó emlékkönyv, [Bibó Memorial Book] vol. 1, edited by Pál Réz. Budapest: Századvég Kiadó, 1991.

Additional:

Hobsbawm, Eric. "The Rise of Ethno-Linguistic Nationalism." In Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson, and Anthony D. Smith. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 177-184.

Schöpflin, George. "The Political Traditions of Eastern Europe." In Eastern Europe ...Central Europe ... Europe, edited by Stephen R. Groubard. Boulder, USA: Westview Press, 1991. 59-95.

Week 2. Multinational Empires, Assimilationist Drives and National Emancipation Movements. Turn-of-the-Century Survey

Oszkár, Jászi. A Habsburg Monarchia felbomlása. [The dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy] Budapest: Gondolat, 1982. 336-359, 475-529.

Szász, Zoltán. "Kormánypolitika és nemzetiségek." [Govermnemt politics and nationalities]. In Erdély a históriában. [Transylvania in historiography], edited by Nándor Bárdi. Miercurea-Ciuc: Pro-Print, 1998. 169-181.

Additional:

Cohen, Gary B. "The German Minority of Prague, 1850-1918." In Ethnic Identity in Urban Europe, edited by Max Engman. Dartmouth: European Science Foundation, 1992, pp 267-295.

Glettler, Monika. "Slovaks in Budapest and Bratislava, 1850-1914." In Ethnic Identity in Urban Europe, edited by Max Engman. Dartmouth: European Science Foundation, 1992, pp 295-331.

Moldován, Gergely. A magyarországi románok. [The Romanians of Hungary] Budapest, 1913.

Week 3. Development, 'Re-Alignment' and 'Lagging Behind' as Mirrored by Indicators of Social History in the First Three Decades of the 20th Century

Berend, Iván T., and György Ránki. Közép-Kelet Európa gazdasági fejlodése a 19. és 20. században. [The economic development of Central and Eastern Europe in the 19th and 20th century]Budapest: Gazdasági és Jogi Kiadó, 1976. 255-293, 527-561.

Spulber, Nicholas. "The Role of the State in Economic Growth in Eastern Europe since 1860." In The State and Economic Growth, edited by Hugh Aitken. New York: 1959. 255-277.

Additional:

Janos, Andrew C. "The Politics of Backwardness in Continental Europe." World Politics, 41 no.3 (1989): 337-347.

Jovitt, Kenneth. "The Sociocultural Bases of National Dependency in Peasant Countries." In Social Change in Romania 1860-1940. A Debate on Development in a European Nation, edited by Kenneth Jowitt. Berkeley: University of California, 1978. 1-31.

Week 4. National Self-Determination and Minority Protection According to the Principles Reflected in the Paris Peace Settlements Following World War I.

French, Stanley, and Andreas Gutman. "The Principle of National Self-Determination." In Philosophy, Morality and International Affairs, edited by Held, Morgenbesser, and Nagel. London: Oxford University Press, 1974. 138-153.

Inis, Claude L. National Minorities, an International Problem. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955. 1-68.

Additional:

Galántai, József. "Kisebbségvédelem a párizsi békekonferencián, 1919-1920." [Minority protection at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919-1920] História no. 2-3 (1991): 28-31.

Kedourie, Elie. "Nationalism and Self-Determination." In Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson, and Anthony D. Smith. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 49-53.

Week 5. The Inherited Conflict of Nation and Minority in the Interwar Practice of the Successor States of the Dual Monarchy

Kocsis, Károly. Egy felrobbant etnikai mozaik esete. Az etnikai konfliktusok történeti-földrajzi háttere a volt Jugoszlávia területén. [The case of an exploded ethnic conglomerate. The geo-historical background of ethnic conflict on the territory of former Yugoslavia] Budapest: Teleki László Alapítvány, 1993.

Macartney, C. A. National States and National Minorities. London: Oxford University Press, 1934. 157-175, 237-294.

Pearson, Raymond. "Empire, War and the Nation-State in East-Central Europe." In Contemporary Nationalism in East Central Europe, edited by Paul Latawski. Houndmills: St. Martin's Press, 1995. 25-41.

Additional:

Mendelsohn, Ezra. The Jews of East-Central Europe Between the World Wars. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983. 85-213.

Sugar, Peter F. "Extermal and Domestic Roots of Eastern European Nationalism." In Nationalism in Eastern Europe, edited by Peter Sugar and Ivo J. Lederer. Washington: University Press, 1969. 3-54.

Week 6. Constructing Nation-State Identities by Means of Cultural and Educatioanl Politics. Variations for the Relationship of National Unity and Regional Self-Consciousness

(Students' announcement of individual research-paper titles due)

Balogh, Piroska. "Transzilvanizmus: revízió vagy regionalizmus?" [Transylvanism: revisionism or regionalism?] In Trianon és a magyar politikai gondolkodás 1920-1953 [Trianon and the Hungarian political thinking 1920-1953] Budapest: Osiris, 1998.

Clarke, James. "Education and National Consciousness in the Balkans." In The Pen and the Sword: Studies in Bulgarian History, edited by Dennis Hupchik. Boulder: East European Monographs, 1988. 24-57.

Hutchinson, John. "Cultural Nationalism and Moral Regeneration." In Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson, and Anthony D. Smith. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 122-132.

Additional:

Livezeanu, Irina. Cultural Politics in Greater Romania; Regionalism, Nation Building, and Ethnic Struggle, 1918-1930. London: Cornell University Press, 1995. 29-49, 211-245.

Week 7. Minority Rights, Legal Practice of the State-Apparatus and the League of Nations

(Mid-term written examination due)

Musgrave, Thomas G. "The Protection of Minorities in Modern International Law." In Self-Determination and National Minorities.Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. 126-147.

Vangyel, Erzsébet. "A kisebbségi jogvédelem és a Nemzetek Szövetsége." [Minority rights' protection and the League of Nations] In Történelem és nemzet, [History and Nation]edited by Károly Kiss and Krisztina Lovas. Budapest: ELTE, 1996. 419-455.

Additional:

Für, Lajos. "A kisebbségi jogvédelem történetébol." [From the history of minority rights' defence] In Erdély a históriában [Transylvania in historiography], edited by Nándor Gergel, András A. Kisebbség, etnikum, regionalizmus [Minority, ethnicity, regionalism] Budapest: Scientia Humana, 1997. SZE

Szarka, László. "Revízió és kisebbségvédelem?" [Revisionism and minority protection?]. História no. 2 (1993): 23-25.

Week 8. 'Belated Modernization.' Ethnically Based Social Inequalities?

Beller, Steven. "Germans and Jews as Central Europe and 'Mitteleuröpische Elites'." In Mitteleuropa, History and Prospects, edited by Peter Stirk. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1994.

Brass, Paul R. "Elite Competition and Nation-Formation." In Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson, and Anthony D. Smith. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 83-89.

Gellner, Ernst. "Nationalism and Modernization." In Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson, and Anthony D. Smith. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 55-63.

Additional:

Engman, Max. "Nond-Dominant Ethnic Groups in the Urban Labour Market." In Ethnic Identity in Urban Europe, edited by Max Engman. Dartmouth: European Science Foundation, 1992, pp 391-407.

Nairn, Tom. "The Maladies of Development." In Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson, and Anthony D. Smith. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 70-76.

Week 9. Revisionism, Anti-Revinionist Pursuits, Xenophobia. Ethnic Minority and International Politics in the Shadow of the Third Reich

Ádám, Magda. A Kisantant 1920-1938. [The Little Entente 1920-1938] Budapest: Akadémiai, 1989. 170-182, 215-271.

Diószegi, László. "A nagyhatalmak és a Duna-medence az 1930-as években." [The Great Powers and the Danube-basin in the 1930s] In Magyarország és a nagyhatalmak a 20. században, [Hungary oan the Great Powers in the 20th centruy] edited by Ignác Romsics. Budapest, 1995. 99-113.

Edelmann, Todd M. "Comparative Perspectives on Modern Anti-Semitism." In History and Hate. The Dimensions of Anti-Semitism, edited by David Berger. Philadelphia/New York: The Jewish Publication Society, 1986. 95-114.

Additional:

Komjath, Anthony, Stockwell, Rebecca. German Minorities and the Third Reich. Ethnic Germans of East Central Europe Between the Wars. New York: Holmes and Meyer Publishers Inc., 1980. 17-65, 103-125, 147-157.

Tilkovszky, Loránt. "Revíziós sikerek, problémák, csalódások." [Successes, problems, deceptions of attained revision] In Erdély a históriában [Transylvania in historiography], edited by Nándor Bárdi. Miercurea-Ciuc: Pro-Print, 1998. 331-338.

Week 10. Romanians, Hungarians, Saxons. Transylvanian Autonomies and National Consciousnesses in a Historical Reading. "Switzerland of the East" as the Meeting-Zone of Historical Regions. A Case-Study

Connor, Walker. "A Nation is a Nation, is a State, is and Ethnic Group, is a ... ." In Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson, and Anthony D. Smith. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 36-47.

Sugar, Peter. "Nationalism in Eastern Europe." In Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson, and Anthony D. Smith. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 171-177.

Szász, Zoltán. "Magyarok, románok, szászok [Hungarians, Romanians, Saxons] História no. 2-3. (1991): 23-26.

Additional:

Dobrinescu, Valeriu Florin. "Transilvania la cele doua Conferinte de Pace de la Paris (1919-1920 si 1946-1947)." [Transylvania at the two Paris Peace Conferences (1919-1920 and 1946-1947] In 1918. Sfirsit si început de epoca/Korszakvég - Korszakkezdet/The End and the Beginning of an Era, edited by Cornel Grad and Viorel Ciubota. Zalau: Lektor, and Editura Muzeului Satmarean, 1998. 487-495.

Lipcsey, Ildikó. Erdélyi autonómiák. Történelmi tanulmányok. [Transylvanian autonomies: Historical studies] Budapest, 1990.

Week 11. The Double-Faced Triumph of the Soviet Rule. "Kidnapped" Nations, "Hostage" Minorities, in another Imperial Framework?

Bán, András D. "Föderációs és konföderációs tervek Kelet-Közép és Délkelet-Európáról, 1939-1947." [Federative and confederative plans on East-Central and Southeastern Europe, 1939-1947] In Integrációs törekvések Közép- és Kelet-Európában, [Strivings for integration in Central and Eastern Europe] edited by Romsics, Ignác. Budapest, 1995. 115-158.

Sugar, Peter. "Continuity and Change in Eastern European Authoritarianism: Autocracy, Fascism, and Communism." East European Quarterly, 18 no. 1 (1984): 1-23.

Additional:

Roucek, Joseph S., and Kenneth W. Lottich. Behind the Iron Curtain. East European Nationalisms and Education. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers Ltd., 1964.185-275-371.

Vajda, Mihály. "Orosz szocializmus Közép-Európában." [Russian socialism in Central Europe] Századvég (Füzetek 4.), 1989.

Week 12. National Communism and Ethnic Society. The "Socialist Answer" to the Minority Question. Church, Education and Culture from the 1950s to the 1980s

Roucek, Joseph S., and Kenneth W. Lottich. Behind the Iron Curtain. East European Nationalisms and Education. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers Ltd., 1964. 9-19, 39-65, 597-627.

Smith, Anthony D. "Communist Nationalism." In Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Martin Robertson and Co., 1979. 115-150.

Additional:

Gábor, Mózes P. "A bizantinizmus élo hagyományai - A sztálinizmus eszmetörténeti hátteréréol." [The living traditions of Byzantinism - On the backrounds in history of ideas of Stalinism] In Sztálinizmus és desztalinizáció Magyarországon. Felszámolták-e a szovjet rendszert? Politikai tanulmányok, [Stalinizm and destalinization in Hungary. Has the Soviet system been dissolved? Political essays] edited by Balla Bálint. Budapest, 1990. 37-63.

Ludanyi, Andrew. "Socialist Patriotism and National Minorities: A Comparison of the Yugoslav and Romanian Theory and Practice." In Society in Change. Studies in Honor of Béla K. király, edited by Béla Várdy, Steven and Ágnes Huszár Várdy. Boulder: Eastern European Monographs, 1983. 557-585.

Week 13. The Relationship of State-Nation, National Minority and Mother-Nation in the 20th Century. Nationalisms in Periodically Renewed Frameworks?

Brubaker, Rogers, "Ártalmas állítasok. Mítoszok és tévkepzetek a nacionalizmus-kutatásban." [Harmful statements. Myths and misconceptions in the study of nationalism] Beszélo, 3 (Oktober 1996): 24 - 63.

Kymlicka, Will. "Ethnic Relations in Eastern Europe and Western Political Theory." In Managing Diversity in Plural Societies: Minorities, Migration and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Europe, edited by Magda Opalski. Ottawa: Eastern European Forum, 1998.

Additional:

Seroka, Jim. "Yugoslavia and Its Sucessor States." In Developments in East European Politics, edited by Stephen White, Judy Bratt and Paul G. Lewis. Houndmills: The Macmillan Press LTD, 1993. 98-124.

Whigman, Gordon. "The Czech and Slovak Republics." In Developments in East-European Politics, edited by Stephen White, Judy Bratt, and Paul G. Lewis. London: Macmillan, 1993. 51-65.

Week 14. The Reassessment of the Positions of Nation-States and their Minorities According to Experiences of the Post-Communist Period. Ethnically Divided Societies and European Integration

(Final take-home written examination topics to be announced; Research-papers due in the ordinary session of exams)

Hassner, Pierre. "Beyond Nationalis and Internationalism: Ethnicity and the World Order." In Ethnic Conflict and International Security, edited by Michael E. Brown. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 125-141.

Lampe, John R. "Southeastern Europe and the Legacy of Insecurity." In Problems of Balkan Security. Southeastern Europe in the 1990s, edited by Paul S. Shoup. Washington D. C.: The Wilson Center Press, 1990. 63-88.

Additional:

Pearson, Raymond. "The Geopolitics of People-Power: The Pursuit of the Nation-State in East-Central Europe." Journal of International Affairs, (Winter, 1992).

Walker, Jennone. "Regional Organizations and Ethnic Conflict." In Central and Eastern Europe: The Challenge of Transition, edited by Regina Cowen Karp. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. 45-69.

 

Basic Readings (non-mandatory)

Armstrong, John. "Towards a Post-Communist World." In Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson, and Anthony D. Smith. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 280-287.

Balogh, Artúr. A kisebbségek nemzetközi védelme a kisebbségei szerzodések és a békeszerzodések alapján. [The international protection of minorities according to the minority and peace treaties] Berlin, 1928 [reprinted; Bucharest: Kriterion, 1997]

Berger, David. "Anti-Semitism: An Overview." In History and Hate. The Dimensions of Anti-Semitism, edited by David Berger. Philadelphia/New York: The Jewish Publication Society, 1986. 3-14.

Borsody, István. Az új Közép-Európa. Két világháború és ami utána következett. [The new Central Europe. Two World Wars and what followed] translated/edited by Ferenc Miszlivetz. Szombathely: Savaria University Press, 1998.

Brubaker, Rogers. Nationalism Reframed. Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 1-13, 55-76.

Cobban, Alfred. "The Rise of the Nation-State System." In Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson, and Anthony D. Smith. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 245-251.

Gergely, András A. Kisebbség, etnikum, regionalizmus. [Minority, ethnicity, regionalism] Budapest: Scientia Humana, 1997.

Kiss, Csaba Gy. Közép-Európa, nemzetek, kisebbségek [Central Europe, nations, minorities]. Budapest: Pesti Szalon, 1993.

Kocsis, Károly. Elcsatoltak. Magyarok a szomszéd államokban. [The Disconnected. Hungarians in the neighbouring states] Budapest: Tudományos Ismeretterjeszto Társulat, 1990.

Kymlicka, Will, ed. The Rights of Minority Cultures. Oxford: University Press, 2000.

McKim, Robert, and Jeff McMahan, eds. The Morality of Nationalism. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Mikó, Imre. Nyelvhasználat és jogtörténet 1868-1944. [Cultural rights and law history, 1868-1944] Kolozsvár/Cluj, 1973.

Miller, David. On Nationality. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

Pearson, Rayomd. National Minorities in Eastern Europe 1848-1945. London/Baltimore: The Macmillan Press, 1983.

Poulton, Hugh. Minorities in Southeast Europe: Inclusion and Exclusion. London: Minority Rights Group International, 1998.

Smith, Anthony D. Nationalism and Modernism. A critical survey of recent theories of nations and nationalism. London and New York: Routledge, 2000.

Sugar, Peter F., ed. Ethnic Diversity and Conflict in Eastern Europe. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio, 1980.

Tabajdi, Csaba and Sándor Barényi, eds. Hogyan érthetné meg a Nyugat jobban a közép- és kelet-európai kisebbségek kérdéskörét, illetve ok hogyan értethetnék meg magukat jobban a Nyugattal? [How could the West better understand the specific problems of Central- and Eastern European minorities, or how could these make themselves be better understood by the West?] Budapest: Osiris, 1998.



   crc  .  syllabi collection  .  alumni syllabi  .  nationalism studies  .