|Course Title||National idea in Russian conservative press in the second half of XIXth and the beginning of XXth centuries|
|Lecturer||Leonov Mikhail Mikhailovich|
|Institution||Samara State Academy of Culture & Arts|
Aims of the course
Studying the main tendencies in the development of Russian conservative press in the second half of XIX. and the beginning of XX. centuries, investigation of well-known conservative thinkers’ participation in the governmental reforms, comparative analysis of the "black hundred" ideology and the nationalism of XIX-century conservators.
Chronological borders of the course
The period from the "Great Reforms" till the beginning of World War I, including the time when conservatism became a governmental ideology and the right-wing press had extreme influence on governmental strategy.
Role of the course in the overall degree curriculum
This special course is part of the long-term course on Russian history and culture. It is the addition of the above mentioned course for second year students.
Russian conservatism in the second half of XIX and the beginning of XX centuries as a national ideology. Western political ideas and their influential on evolution of Russian thought. The main sources on history of "Russian idea" and conservative press.
Different types of methodology in pre-Revolutionary Russia: liberal historiography (L.Z. Slonimsky, A.A. Kornilov), conservative historiography (S.S. Oldenburg, V.V. Nazarevsky), Marxist historiography. Ideological barriers for researches on conservative press in 1920-30.
Unsuccessful attempts of investigation during the Stalin regime. Soviet historiography of 1960-70. (B.P. Baluev, P.A. Zayonchkovsky, V.A.Tvardovskaya, etc.) Fresh view of historians of 1980-90. (K.A.Soloviev, A.S.Kartsov, N.A.Rabkina). First fundamental works.
England, American, German and French historical investigations on Russian conservative press. Scholar literature of 1930-1940. (B. Pares, B. Sumner). "Cold war" and studies on "history of ideas" in USA and Europe (A. Adams, M. Katz, R. Byrnes, M. Raeff, H. Kohn). Foreign historiography of 1970-80. (W. Mosse, H. Whilan, M. Ferro). R. Pipes and his attempts to classify Russian conservatism of XIX century. Newest works on history of conservatism and right-wing press (A. Martin, D. Lieven, T. Weeks).
Conservatism and nationalism
National elements in the program of Russian conservative nationalists. "Nationality" as a symbol Russian conservatism in the second half of XIX century. "Religious tolerance" and struggle against western churches.
The attitude to national minorities living in Russia. The Jewish question. Separatism in Poland.
"New formation" of ideologists in Russian conservatism: M.N. Katkov, K.P. Pobedonostsev, and D.A. Tolstoy. Katkov’s position on national question. Polish rebellion in 1863 and Russian conservative society. Conservative thinkers and government: problem of communication.
"Great Reforms" and their interpretation by right-wing newspapers. Russian conservative bureaucracy. Liberal and revolution movements in the end of 1870 and beginning of 1880. Assassination of Alexander II. Alexander III and his counter-reform politic.
Autocracy, Orthodoxy and nobility in the works of Russian conservative thinkers.
Right-wing press and propaganda of national idea during the reign of Alexander III
Government and the press in Russia at the end of XIX - begin of XX centuries. "Oficiozy" (Government-managed press).
Subside question in the time of Alexander III. Prince V.P. Meshchersky and his "Grazhdanin".
Financial problems of Russian conservative press. Debts of "Moskovskie vedomosti" (Moskow news), "Russkiy vestnik" (Russian courier) and "Sovremennye izvestiya" (Contemporary news). M.N. Katkov’s and N.P. Gilyarov-Platonov’s money sources.
R.A. Fadeev as publicist and public figure.
Right-wing press and censorship.
Political, religious, satiric publishing of the conservative camp. Light-reading literature for low-educated people.
"A face of enemy": liberalism and socialism in interpretation of Russian nationalistic press.
Cosmopolite character of the liberal and socialist doctrines. Western models of the democratic state. Liberal press in Russia. K.P. Pobedonostsev and his articles about democracy and parliament. "A Great deceit of our time".
Founding of "national school" in Russian villages and activity of the liberal teachers. Conservative press’ reaction. "All liberal teachers must be dismissed from school and are placed in psychiatric hospital": V. P. Meshcherskiy claimed.
The liberal professors and Russian students.
Conservative press and offers to forbid liberal propagation.
The conservative journalists and socialists: mutual hatred. The requirements of retaliatory measures against socialists.
"Socialism and Christianity are opposite each other". Orthodox Christianity conservatism
F.M. Dostoevsky, his life and thought. Orthodoxy and morality in novels and articles of great writer. Dostoevsky as a redactor in chief of magazine "Grazhdanin" (The Citizen): his political program and activity. Special features of Russian Orthodoxy conservatism.
K.N. Leont’ev and his central works. Russia and Slave in Leont’ev’s thought. "Messiah" idea. New estimation of Peter the Great reforms. The idea of theocratic autocracy. Comparison of political and Orthodoxy conservatism in works of Leont’ev.
Conservative nationalists at the tsar’s court and government
K.P. Pobedonostsev’s and D.A. Tolstoy’s power at the court and their participation in making of high officials during the Alexander III reign. Struggle against liberal circles. Right-wing press and critics of "inconvenient" ministers. Retire of N.H. Bunge. I.A.Vyshnegradsky, S.U.Witte appointments.
"Camarillo" and intrigues at the court of Nicholas II. Powerful circles of V.P. Meshchersky and N.F. Burdukov, K.F. Golovin, M.M. Andronnikov. Realization of political reforms and "dirty" financial business. Rasputin and his relation to Meshchersky & Burdukov conservative circle. Appointments of N.A. Maklakov, A.V. Krivoshein, L.I. Goremykin.
P.A. Stolypin’ and V.N. Kokovtsov’ struggle against "Camarillo". Retire of V.N. Kokovtsov.
Right-wing press and the conservative journalists at the beginning of XX century
The ideologists of Russian conservatism at the beginning of XX century. L.A. Tikhomirov phenomena.
Nicholas II and prince V.P. Meshchersky: making of "secret defending union". Preparation of profound conservative reforms. Manifest of 26.2.1903. Russian-Japanese war and destroying of "secret defending union".
Modernization of the Russian conservatism social conception in the years of First Russian Revolution. Public basis of Parliament convocation. New tactic of compromises.
Agrarian and labor problems at works of XX century conservative publishers. New purposes for the foreign affairs.
"Black hundred" nationalism: ideologists, newspapers, readers
First Russian Revolution and masses monarchical organizations appearance. "Monarchical party", "Union of Russian People", "Mikhail Archangel’ Union". Using of old conservative slogans and new interpretations of them. Chauvinistic ideas and aggressive character of the "black hundred". Pogroms. Russian autocracy and the monarchical organizations.
New life of "Moskovskie vedomosti".
Chiefs of the "black hundred" movement. V.A. Gringmut, V.M. Purishkevich. Different points of view on Katkov’s, Meshchersky’s and Tikhomirov’s programs. Periodical press of local monarchical unions. Crisis of the "monarchical idea" at the beginning of XX century.
Seminar #1. The most important conservative newspapers: history and political program
Seminar #2. Conservative press and censorship
Seminar #3. Conservative press and the "Great Reforms" of Alexander II.
Seminar #4. Conservative journalists and their enemies