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   Course Title    Conflict resolution and peacebuilding
Lecturer    Carina Korostelina
Institution    Tavrida National University
Country    Ukraine


This course is devoted to the problems of analyses and resolution of social conflict in different areas - interpersonal, intergroup, and international - and to the methods of peacebuilding and peacemaking. During the course student obtain some exposure to analysis of conflict, violence, wars and receive knowledge how psychological processes, situational factors, and cultural and political institutions jointly influence behavior in conflicting relationships between individuals, groups, and nations. The perspectives of history, sociology, cultural anthropology, political science and psychology will be shown to be relevant. Course examine social influences (the behavior of others, political and cultural institutions) on the development of violent and nonviolent dispositions and methods used to resolve, manage, and control both violentand non-violent conflict at all levels.

Identity issues influence both structure and contents of the course. The main aim of the first lecture is to introduce identity as a framework for course, to show the importance of identity for understanding current international and internal conflicts and as a source for new ways in peace building.

To combine peace education and conflict resolution approaches in one curricula we propose the following structure of it. In the introduction we present knowledge about history and main goals of peace education, methodology of peace education (development, socialization, active learning, democratic participation), methods of peace education: cooperative learning, academic controversy, problem solving, cross-cultural methods). In this case, peace education became not only a topic of course, but a frame, a form of course. In this context each topic can be present by different peace education methods.

The main goals of the course is to create the peaceful people trough

  • giving knowledge and skills in peace and conflict (competency)
  • developing peaceful identities, attitudes and values
  • developing expectation of success

The course is based on systematic approach:

  1. view the world from multicultural and global perspectives and appreciating the view of different and similar people;
  2. making connections over time (past, present and future) and space (local, national, regional, global) as examine events, ideas, and issues.
  3. applying the knowledge and skills to interests, issues, or concerns so that students can better meet the challenges and realities pose by an interdependent world.

Learning Objevtives- knowledge

  1. Knowledge of the destructive consequences of violence t all levels of human relations.
  2. Self-assessment of conflict resolution behavioral tendencies and understanding of competencies, values, emotions, attitudes, and expectancies that influence reaction to conflict.
  3. Understanding psychological, situational, political, and cultural determinants of violence and non- violence in interpersonal, intergroup, and international conflict.
  4. Understanding that some general principles may be usefully applied to all levels of conflict (interpersonal, intregroup, and international) and across cultures, whereas other principles have more specific applications
  5. Understanding factors and processes that influence escalation and de- escalation of conflict.
  6. Understanding how political and cultural institutions (governments, educational system, families, the media) influence socialization of violent and non-violent conflict behaviors.
  7. Knowledge of strategies and methods for conflict resolution including negotiation, mediation, arbitration, adjudication, identity- based methods and social influence tactics( punishment, resistance, treat, conciliation)
  8. Knowledge of proposals for political, economic and cultural change that address the structural causes of conflict and violence.
  9. Knowledge of identity influence for individual and groups roots of conflicts and ways to tolerance.

Learning Objectives- Abilities

  1. Ability to identify psychological, situational, political and cultural factors that are important determinants of reactions to conflict in particular cases of interpersonal, intergroup, and international conflict.
  2. Ability to use a problem- solving approach to conflict resolution (be able to analyze a conflict situation, generate relevant conflict resolution and social influence strategies, and critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the alternative strategies.
  3. Ability to work cooperatively in a small groups on tasks including analysis of conflict and application of problem- solving principles to specific cases
  4. Ability to clearly express in writing an analysis of conflict resolution behavior and description of problem- solving process for resolving a particular interpersonal, intergroup, or international conflict.
  5. Ability to apply basic communication and negotiation skills for interpersonal conflict resolution.

Learning Objectives- values and attitudes

  1. Appreciation for positive opportunities inherent in a problem- solving approach to conflict resolution
  2. Preference for use of nonviolent and cooperative strategies for conflict resolution in interpersonal, intergroup, and international relations
  3. Respect for cultural differences in perceptions of conflict and in method of conflict resolution
  4. Positive expectations regarding the human potential for reducing violence at all levels of human relations
  5. Self-efficacy expectations for success in anger management and interpersonal conflict resolution.

 

I. Introduction

Lecture 1 Introduction of peace psychology as a frame for course (4 hours).

  • introduction of the main goals of course
  • peace psychology in the system of peace studies (different approaches as economic, political, arms, and military )
  • history of peace psychology
  • peace education as a part of peace psychology
  • methodology of peace education (development, socialization, active learning, democratic participation)
  • methods of peace education: cooperative learning, academic controversity, problem solving, crossocultural methods)

Reading:

  1. Alder, Chadwick.F Building peace: a global learning process. In: Teaching about international conflict and peace. Merryfield, M. and Remy, Richard, ed. State university of New York Press: NewYork, 1995.
  2. McIntyre, Michael, Sister Lake Tobin. Peace World. Friendship Press, 1976
  3. Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T, Smith, Karl A.(1991) Active learning: cooperation in the college classroom. Interaction book company: Edina,
  4. Rogers, Everett M., (1971) Diffusion of Innovation. New York: Free Press
  5. Harris, Ian M.(1988 ) Peace education. Mc Farland & Company: Jefferson and London.
  6. Smoker, Davies, and Munske (eds.) (1990) A Reader in peace studies. New York:Pergamon Press,
  7. Barash, D.P.(1991) Introduction to peace Studies. Calif:,Wadsworth,
  8. Klare, Michael.(1994) Peace & world security Studies.Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers,

 

II. The roots of conflicts

Lecture 2. Identity as a basis of peace and conflict.( 4 hours)

  • identity as a basic of conflicts in new world
  • function of identity
  • structure of identity
  • identity theories, categorization

Reading:

  1. Berry, J., Kim, U., Power, S., Young, M.,
  2. & Bujaki, M. (1989) Acculturation attitudes in plural societies. Applied Psychology, 38, 185-206
  3. Brewer, M. (1996) When contact is not enough: social identity and intergroup cooperation. International journal of Intercultural relations, 20, 291-303
  4. Gaetner S. L., Mann, J., Murrell, A.,&Dovidio, J.F.(1989) Reducing intergroup bias: the benefit of recategorization. Journal of personality and social psychology, 47, 245-267
  5. Tajfel H. (1986 ).The social identity theory of intergroup bahavior. In S.Worshel & W.G. Austin. Psychology of Intregroup relations. Chicago:Nelson –Hall
  6. Turner,J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D.,& Watherell, M. S.,(1987). Rediscovering the social group; A self- categorization theory. Oxford and new York: Basi Blackwell
  7. Turner J.C. (1991) Social influence. Buckingham, England: Open University Press; Pacific Grove, CA:Brooks\Cole

Interactive seminar "Exploaring identity issues" (2 hours).

Lecture 3. Individual roots of conflict (4 hours)

  • biological roots and motivation
  • emotions (aggressive, affiliation)
  • perception and cognition and structure of consciousness
  • problem solving and decision making abilities
  • values and personalyti (autocratic, etc)
  • two models of thinking
  • tolerance and self efficasy

Reading:

  1. Glad, B Psychological dimensions of War.Newbury Park, Cal.: Sage, 1991
  2. J.Burton Conflict: Human needs theory. New York~ St. Martin's Press, 1990
  3. J.G. Stein Building Politics into psychology: the Misperceptin of treat, Political psychology 9, no 2 , 1988: 245-271
  4. Smoker, Davies, and Munske (eds.) (1990) A Reader in peace studies. New York:Pergamon Press,
  5. Barash, D.P.(1991) Introduction to peace Studies. Calif:,Wadsworth,

Seminar in form of academic controvercy "Roots of agressive behavior" (2 hours)

 

Practical class " Cognitive proceses and decision making" (4 hours)

Class work: essay "Roots of tolerant and untolerant behavior" (2 hours)

 

Lecture 3.Intergroup processes (4 hours)

  • Sheriff' theory
  • Social identity theory
  • Volkan' theory
  • Categorization, negative comparison
  • Attribution

Reading:

  1. Berry, J., Kim, U., Power, S., Young, M.,& Bujaki, M. (1989) Acculturation attitudes in plural societies. Applied Psychology, 38, 185-206
  2. Brewer, M. (1996) When contact is not enough: social identity and intergroup cooperation. International journal of Intercultural relations, 20, 291-303
  3. Gaetner S. L., Mann, J., Murrell, A.,&Dovidio, J.F.(1989) Reducing intergroup bias: the benefit of recategorization. Journal of personality and social psychology, 47, 245-267
  4. Tajfel H. (1986 ).The social identity theory of intergroup bahavior. In S.Worshel & W.G. Austin. Psychology of Intregroup relations. Chicago:Nelson –Hall
  5. Turner,J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D.,& Watherell, M. S.,(1987). Rediscovering the social group; A self- categorization theory. Oxford and new York: Basi Blackwell
  6. Turner J.C. (1991) Social influence. Buckingham, England: Open University Press; Pacific Grove, CA:Brooks\Cole

Cooperative learning seminar " Intergroup conflicts" (4 hours)

Group work (intergroup processes) (6 hours)

 

Lecture 4. Cultural dimensions of conflict and peace (4 hours).

  • culture and conflict
  • cultural dimensions: individualism -collectivism and so on
  • cross-cultural adaptation
  • culture as a determinant of understanding of peace.

Reading

  1. Berry, J., Kim, U., Power, S., Young, M.,& Bujaki, M. (1989) Acculturation attitudes in plural societies. Applied Psychology, 38, 185-206
  2. Smoker, Davies, and Munske (eds.) (1990) A Reader in peace studies. New York:Pergamon Press,
  3. Barash, D.P.(1991) Introduction to peace Studies. Calif:,Wadsworth,

Training in cross-cultural adaptation. (6 hours)

 

Lecture 5.Nationalism, patriotism, national identity building (2 hours).

  • nationalism
  • patriotism
  • civic wars
  1. Smoker, Davies, and Munske (eds.) (1990) A Reader in peace studies. New York:Pergamon Press,
  2. Barash, D.P.(1991) Introduction to peace Studies. Calif:,Wadsworth,

Essay "Deviding nationalism and patriotism" (2 hours)

 

III. Conflict, violence and wars

Lecture 6. Conflict as a process ( 2 hours).

  • power and conflict
  • Stages
  • types of conflicts

Reading:

  1. Smoker, Davies, and Munske (eds.) (1990) A Reader in peace studies. New York:Pergamon Press,

  2. Barash, D.P.(1991) Introduction to peace Studies. Calif:,Wadsworth

Seminar " Conflict as a process" (2 hours)

 

Lecture 7. Ethnic conflicts (4 hours)

  • etnicity
  • security dilemma
  • nested minorities
  • current etnic conflicts
  • violence
  • genocide
  • ethnic cleansing
  • militarism
  • arms races

Reading:

  1. Glazer, N., Moynihan, D.P.(1975) Etnicity:theory and experience. Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard University Press
  2. Brass, P.R. (1985) Ethnicity and Natioalism: theory and comparison. Newbury Park, Calif.:Sage Publications.
  3. Brass P.R. (1997) Treft of an Idol: text and context in the representation of collective violence. Princeton, N.J.:

Teaching methods:

  • writing an essay about biological and psychological roots of conflict.
  • research stereotypes toward different groups: gender, professional, ethnic, age groups, peculiarities of appearance.
  • writing an essay about nationalism and patriotism
  • cooperative learning,
  • academic controversity,
  • crossocultural methods
  • Decision making exercises and problem solving,
  • Conducting training

 

IV. Peacebuilding

Lecture 8. Peace building as activity.(2 hours)

  • peace making, peacebuilding and peacekeeping
  • actors of peacebuilding
  • nonviolence
  • cases of peace building

Reading:

  1. Walton, R.E. (1969) International peacemaking: confrontations and third party consultation. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

  1. Smoker, Davies, and Munske (eds.) (1990) A Reader in peace studies. New York:Pergamon Press,

  2. Barash, D.P.(1991) Introduction to peace Studies. Calif:,Wadsworth

 

Lecture 9. Traditional methods of peacemaking (2 hours)

  • negotiation
  • facilitation,
  • mediation,
  • arbitration
  • judgication, international courte
  • CRIT (Ossgud)
  • reconciliation,
  • Track II diplomcy

Reading:

Blake, R.R., Mouton, J.S. (1962) the intergroup dynamics of win –lose conflict and problem-solving collaboration in union-management relations. In M. Sherif(ed.) Intergroup relations and leadership. New York: John Wiley.

Kochman, T.(1981). Black and white styles in conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Walton, R.E. (1969) International peacemaking: confrontations and third party consultation. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

Pruitt, D.G., (1981) Negatiation Behavior. New York: Academic Press.

Practical class "Mediation and facilitation" (8 hours)

 

Lecture 3. Identity based methods (2 hours)

  • decategorization
  • recategorization
  • mutual differentiation
  • negotiating identity"
  • identity training

Reading:

Bell, D. (1975).Ethnicity and social change. In: Ethnicity: theory and experience. Edts: Glazer, N and Moynihan, D.P. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,

Brewer, M. (1996) When contact is not enough: social identity and intergroup cooperation. International journal of Intercultural relations, 20, 291-303

Gaetner S.L., Mann, J., Murrell, A.,&Dovidio, J.F.(1989) Reducing intergroup bias: the benefit of recategorization. Journal of personality and social psychology, 57, . 239-249 .

Keefe, S.E.(1992) Ethnic identity: the domain of perceptions and attachment to ethnic groups and cultures. Human organization, 51, 35-41

Tajfel H. (1986 ).The social identity theory of intergroup bahavior. In S.Worshel & W.G. Austin. Psychology of Intregroup relations. Chicago:Nelson –Hall

Turner,J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D.,& Watherell, M. S.,(1987).Rediscovering the social group; A self- categorization theory. Oxford and new York: Basi Blackwell

Teaching methods.

  • studding the biographies of famous peace builder
  • writing essay "If I'll be a leader of UN"
  • conducting mediation, facilitation
  • cooperative learning,
  • academic controversity,
  • crossocultural methods
  • Decision making exercises and problem solving,
  • negotiation
  • conducting identity based training

Teaching methods

Cooperative learning.

Three approaches to teaching:

  • work cooperatively in small groups, ensuring that all members master the assigned material (cooperation)
  • engage in a win-lose struggle to see who is best (competition)
  • work independently on their own learning goals at their own place and in their own space to achieve a preset criterion of excellence (individualistic learning)

Table Comparison of old and new paradigms of Teaching

 

Old Paradigm

New Paradigm

Knowledge

Transferred from faculty to students

Jointly constructed by students and faculty

Students

by faculty's knowledge

Active constructor, discoverer transformer of own knowledge

Faculty

Classify and sort students purpose

Develop students' competencies and talents

Relationship

Impersonal relationships among students and between faculty and students

Personal transaction among students and between faculty and students

Context

Competitive\individualistic classroom and cooperative

Cooperative learning in teams among faculty

Assumption

Any expert can teach requires considerable training

Teaching is complex and

 Cooperation is working together to accomplish shared goals. Individual outcomes will benefit to themselves and to all other group members. in cooperative learning student work together in small groups to maximize their own and other' learning.

Students must work in small group until all group members have successfully understood and completed instruction. The main principles are:

  • participants striving for mutual benefit so that all group members benefit from each other's efforts (your success benefits me and my success benefits you),
  • recognizing that all group members share a common fate (we all sink or swim together here)
  • recognizing that one's performance is mutually caused by oneself and one's colleagues (we can't do it without you)
  • feeling proud and jointly celebrating when a group members is recognized for achievement (you got an 5! that is terrific!)

Basic elements of cooperative learning:

  1. positive interdependence. Goal interdependence is requiring group members to agree on the answer and the strategies for solving each problem. Role interdependence is structured by assigning each student a role. Reward interdependence is structured by giving each group five points if all members’ score above 90 % correct on the test given at the end of the unit.
  2. face- to face primitive interaction students help, assist, encourage and support each other's efforts to learn.
  3. individual accountability, which exists when the performance of each individual student is assessed and the results given back to the group and the individual.
  4. social skills, as leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication and conflict management skills
  5. Group process analyses.

Types of cooperative learning groups:

1. formal cooperative learning groups (teaching specific content)

a) groups of roles: the reader (reads the problem aloud to the group), the checker (make sure that all members can explain how to solve each problem correctly), the encourager( in a friendly way encourages all members of the group to participate in the discussion).

b) groups of expert (in each group each student completes a special assignment and then all work together to synthesize what they learn)

2. informal cooperative learning groups (to ensure active cognitive processing of information during a lecture)

a) groups analyze different case studies and than teach each other.

b) each group became an "expert" in particular aspects of subject under study.

cooperative base groups (to provide long-term support and assistance for academic progress)

Learning outcomes promoted by cooperative learning

  • higher achievement and increased retention.
  • more frequent higher-level reasoning, deeper- level understanding and critical thinking
  • more on task and less disruptive behavior
  • greater achievement motivation and intrinsic motivation to learn
  • greater ability to view situation from other's perspectives
  • more positive, accepting, and supportive relationship with peers regardless of ethnic, sex, ability, social class, or handicap differences
  • greater social support
  • more positive attitudes toward teachers, principals, and other school personnel.
  • more positive attitudes toward subject areas, learning, and school
  • greater psychological health, adjustment, and well-being
  • more positive self-esteem based on basic self acceptance.
  • greater social competence.

Academic controversy.

Controversy exists when one student's ideas, information, conclusions, theories, and opinions are incompatible with those of another, and the two seek to reach an agreement.

Stages of controversy:

  • research the issue, organize information and prepare positions.
  • present and advocate position
  • general discussion
  • reverse perspective and present the opposing position by the best possible case.
  • reach a consensus and prepare a group report.

Rules for constructive controversy:

1.Be critical of ides, not people. Challenge and refute the ideas of the opposing party, but do not indicate that personally reject them.

2. remember that all in this together, sink or swim. Focus on coming to best decision possible, not on winning.

3. Encourage everyone to participate and to master all the relevant information.

4. Listen to everyone's ideas, even if you don't agree.

5. Restate what someone has said if it is not clear.

6. Firs bring out all ideas and facts supporting both sides, and then try to put them together in way that makes sense.

7. Try to understand both sides of the issue

8. Change your mind when the evidence clearly indicates that you could do so.

The results of controversy:

1. Analyses of problem: categorizing, organizing, and deriving conclusions from present information and experiences.

2. controversy: active representing and elaborating of position and rationale, opportunity for being challenged by opposing views.

3. experiencing conceptual conflict, uncertainly and diseguilibrum

4. epistemic curiosity: active search for more information and understanding opposing positions and rationale

5. reconceptualisation: accuracy of perspective taking incorporation of opponents' information and reasoning; attitude and position change transition to higher stages of cognitive reasoning.

It leads to:

productivity: high quality decision making; high creativity; achievement and retention high continuing motivation

positive attitudes: interpersonal attraction; perceived support; self- esteem.

Decision making and problem-solving.

The problem -solving approach to conflict can be practiced in the classrooms by having students take the role of a party in the real or hypothetical conflict scenario and applying a series of steps~ defining and analyzing the conflict, generating possible alternatives for dealing with conflict, evaluating alternatives, and planning a course of action.

Nelson asked student to propose problem-solving actions for the president in a conflict between the United States and other nation suspected of embarking on a program for development of nuclear weapons. The stages can be:

  • obtaining factual information,
  • identifying the other nation's interests
  • clarifying the interest of the United States
  • consulting with leaders in the United states and in other nations
  • generating alternatives
  • finding the methods (negotiation, mediation and so on)
  • consider the other nation reactions
  • possible affects on relationships

Cross-cultural differences and similarities.

Method provides

  • cross-cultural learning and attribute to student's academic and psychological readiness for
  • understanding and appreciating people those vies or experiences differ from their own
  • understanding other peoples' historical and contemporary experiences with conflict, negotiation, cooperation and other key themes
  • changing an individual's view from onlyan ethnocentric perspective to a more global perspective.

Sample methods.

  1. students practice active listening by interviewing people from another culture.
  2. students work cooperatively with people from another culture toward common goals.
  3. students observe people from other cultures.

Multiple perceives methods.

Help to recognize the importance of examining multiple perspectives, how other parties interpret historical antecedents and perceive the issue, opportunities, constraints and alternatives.

Sample Methods.

  1. student read literature and periodicals and conclude why people see events and issues differently.
  2. students examine primary sources and synthesize commonalities or differences across cultures or nations (Freedom Charter of the African National Congress and US constitution and UN Declaration)

 

Content of the course.

I. Introduction of peace psychology as a frame for course:

Common futures between past and Post cold war World'

1.more than 99 present of wars occur in the development world (127 from 1945 to 1989)

2.these are augmented by various other forms of direct and covert military interventions of larder power in the international disagreements of smaller and development nations.

3. but for such wars and interventions, the civilian death figures have increased dramatically (75% in late 80 and 50% in50). It resulted from combination of genocide, gross violations of human rights and bloody internal civic and ethnic violence

Peace studies.

Peace studies are an applied science directed toward preventing, diminishing, or current violence, whether direct or structural.

Changes in the Concept of security

1. balance of power system primary system in 19-century Europe. Goal: no nations become so strong as to be able to overpower others. Equality was maintained by two groups of states in the system, with one ore several states (Britain) periodically changing alliances in order to maintain the balance.

2. collective security came with the League of Nations in 1919. States agreed on certain basic notions of international law, including national sovereignty and freedom and agreed that if any state violated these rules, all off the others would band together against the miscreant state. But during the cold war the solidarity between permanent members was fractured.

3. collective defense was a step back in the directions of the balance-of - power system and became the dominant international security system by the late 1940s. East and West gathered together in military alliance to defend against each other: NATO and Warsaw Pact.

4.common security comes from two points: the 1980 report of Independent commission on International development issues shows that economic development treat security more than nuclear war and 1982 report of the Independent commission on security Issues, the Palm commission made two conclusions- can be no victory in nuclear war and cost of nuclear weapons are lead to economic insecurity. The Helsinki Final Act 1975 creates common security in borers, economy and human rights.

5. environmental security was added in report " Our common future of 1987 Brundtland Commission. The main idea is that sustainable development required protecting the environment that supported development and we must protect environment for its own sake and for the sake of humankind.

6.comprehensive security first used in Japan's1983- 1984 Defense White Paper and add for traditional national security ensuring access to food, energy and other resources.

Now security comprises not only negative security (the ability to defend against treats viewed as harmful) but also positive security (the ability to maintain relationship that are viewed as essential to survival).

Changes in the concept of Peace.

The concept of peace has also broadened in much the same way as security has, expanding from the concept of "negative peace" (or peace as the absence of War) to include "positive peace" (or peace as the absence of exploitation and the presence of social justice). But there is still debate about concept: some people seem absence of direct violence, other the absence of exploitation s a more important for pace concept. One of definition of peace is " Neither the overt violence of war nor the covert violence of unjust systems is used as an instrument for expending the interest of a particular nations or group. It is a world where basic human needs are met, and in which justice can be obtained and conflict resolved through nonviolent processes and human and material resources are shared for the benefit of all people.

The new topics in peace psychology:

  • ethnic conflict
  • sustainable development (the link between international conflict and sustainable development in context of the military destruction of resources and Third world poverty that results from political instability)
  • feminist approaches to peace (the relationship between patriarchal political structure, sexism, and war, feminist perspectives on human rights, social justice, and peacemaking)

Peace education as a part of peace psychology

Stages of adaptation of innovative idea through society

1) attention

2) interest

3) evaluation

4) trial

5) adoptation

6) confirmation

Peace education.

The focus of peace education has change from the causes of war to all the causes of human conflict. There are different approaches for peace education in different countries. The main aim of European peace educationist to actualization and teach conflict resolution and skills of peacemaking. The Japanese peace education focus on placeless satiations, such as struggle for power and resources, the nuclear race among superpowers, ethical conflicts in small communities, treats of violence, and wars and helps to understand the roots of such situations. Some American peace educators teach about the various ways to provide security, because a need for security motivates humans to form communities and nations. Other authors stressed the importance of conflict resolution skills and non-violence.

The main goals of PE are to create in human consciousness concepts and beliefs that desire peaceful existence and hence transform human values to promote nonviolence. (Harris, Ian M. Peace education. Mc Farland&Company: Jefferson and London. 1988,p.16)

Ten main goals of PE:

  1. to appreciate the richness of the concept of peace
  2. to address fears
  3. to provide information about defense systems
  4. to understand war behavior
  5. to develop intercultural understanding
  6. to provide a future orientation
  7. to teach peace as a process
  8. to promote a concept of peace acompanied by social justice
  9. to stimulate a respect for life
  10. to end violence.

PE is an education about peace and for peace.

Structure of peace education.

  • challenge and formation of individual attitudes about war, peace and conflict by helping people understand how they formed their attitudes about violence and peace.
  • information about the ways for peace
  • formation of ability to be socially responsible actors who know how to change the world.
  • Teaching about history of peacebuilding, principles of conflict resolution and multicultural issues will be necessary but insufficient for developing peaceful behavior. More fundamental and pervasive behavior is determined by attitudes, values, social and problem-solving competencies.

II. The roots of conflicts.

1. Identity as a basis of peace and conflict.

By the author of Social Identity theory, Henri Tajfel, identity was defined as a "part of individuals' self concept which derives from knowledge of their membership in social group (or groups) together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership" (Tajfel, 1981). Tajfel (1986) have observed in their research that, contrary to Sheriff’s theory, the mere fact that there were two distinct groups seemed sufficient for the creation of group identities which reduced the importance of each members' individual identities. The basic assumption of Tajfel's theory is that people strive for a positive social identity (van Knippenberg, 1989). As social identity is derived from membership in groups, a positive social identity is the outcome of favorable social comparisons made between the in-group and other social groups (Druckman, 1994). Self- categorization theory (Turner,1987) explains the emergence of group-level processes in terms of the functioning of the self-concept and at the same time assumes that group processes reciprocally mediate self- categorization and cognition. They conceptualized the identification process in three stages. First, individuals define themselves as a members of social groups; second, they learn the stereotypical norms of those groups; and third, under conditions where a particular ingroup category became salient, they tend to employ the ingroup attributes to decide on the appropriate conduct in the given context.

Identity salience can be defined as the most important identity for individual and it can be influenced by such factors as permeable/ impermeable group boundaries, positive or negative intergroup comparisons, identity distinctiveness issues and socialization processes (Berry et al., 1989; Brewer, 1991,1996; Tajfel & Turner,1979; Turner, 1987). Salience can vary on continuum from strong to weak. As Phinney (1991) shows, persons with strong ethnic identity salience have strong feeling of their group memberships, evaluate their group positively, prefer or are comfortable with their group membership, are interested in group, it's culture and history. Sheldon Stryker (1969) argued that various identities exist in a hierarchy of salience and one identity can invoke over others because not only of its salience, but also of the level of commitment to that identity.. If some identity has salience for long period , it become a central identity and it has strong influence for behavior. Ethnic identity salience may has both stable and situational characteristic. Ting- Toomey (2000) notes, that " for some individuals, ethnic identity only becomes salient when they are forced to confront interpersonal issues of " being different" like stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. This problem is one of the questions in reconciling two dominant approaches for understanding of identity: instrumentalism and primordialism. Instrumentalists suggest that ethnicity does not emerge naturally, but is a result of socialization under elite and communal pressures and orientations into the lifeways of one’s dominant community, and implicitly suggest the dominant role of the elite's manipulation of cultural difference as a causal factor in interethnic conflict.

Primordialists suggest the ubiquity of ethnocentrism and insist that ethnic similarity leads to interethnic conflict. The concept of ethnocentrism closely parallels these ideas in its explanation of ethnic and other group conflict.

In order to understand the basis of salience of one identity in the system of group identities and its influence for conflict behavior, we analyzed the identity formation processes during socialization and acculturation. From the first day of life every individual shares with others culture, language, religion, geography, time, etc. In each case such groups peculiarities develop their own shapes, there own dynamics and interrelations. As were shown in research different characteristics may lie in the basic of group identity: it may be skin color and physical characteristics, history and origins, religious, etc. We suggest that there are three factors, which influence the salience of different group identities.

1. Level of differentiation. From very childhood person try to understand world by analyzing differences and equality of things, individuals and groups. As theory of social categorization suggests, differences play the major role in such process of cognitive development. Principle of metacontrast states that "a collection of stimuli is more likely to be categorized as an entity to the degree that the average differences perceived between those stimuli are less that the average differences perceived between them and the remaining stimuli that make up the frame of reference." Such processes lead to the perception of ingroup' differences as smaller than intergroup differences within the relevant comparative context.

2. The prevalence of interpersonal or intergroup contacts. It was founded in research that social identity tends to become more salient in intergroup contexts. As research show, males and females defined themselves more strongly as typical members of their own sex and stereotyped themselves more as males or females under intergroup than under intragroup comparison. . In such situation "us" vs "them" is more important than "me" and "you"( Gaetner S.L, 1989)

In context of intergroup relations people perceive other group in terms of out-group. In this case, judgments of out- group members tend to be made on the basis of intergroup comparisons whereas judgments of ingroup members can also be made on the basis of intragroup comparison. The out- group homogeneity effect leads to perception of out- group as more homogenous than in-groups. Social identity tend to be more salient in situation of intergroup relation than in situation of interpersonal relation. Strongly identification with group became a powerful source of identity, and putting down other groups may increase self-esteem and provide the group solidarity, these behaviors may also lead to exaggerations of group differences and conflict between groups.

3. Competitiveness.

Competition between groups for resources, power or independent position also can increase the salience of group identity. As was showed in political science research, ethnic mobilization can be increased, because it is fueled by the existence of vital interests (the economic problems of resources), and the collective recognition of fresh opportunities (opportunity to create an autonomous republic following the collapse of a state, for example). "Ethnicity has become more salient [than class] because it can combine an interest with an affective tie"( Bell,1975) Ethnic conflict have become one form in which interest conflict between and within states are pursued. As was stressed by Nathan Glazer and Daniel Moynihan (1975), "ethnicity seems to become a more fundamental source for stratification".

Ethnic identity is one of the most prevalent forms of group identity, and it serves four psychological functions for group members: (i) providing self- esteem, (ii) bestowing social status, (iii) supplying existential security, and (iv) providing knowledge and granting social protection. Psychological research suggests that strong identification with stigmatized groups act as a buffer against the feeling of individual inadequacy in the face of low status. While membership in any ethnic group can provide psychological benefits, membership in ethnic minority groups may satisfy particular psychological needs. The theory of "optimal distinctiveness" of Marilynn Brewer suggests that people have simultaneous needs to be unique from a group (differentiation) and to belong to a group (inclusion). A long tradition of psychological theorizing views the formation and maintenance of identity as inherently conflictual.

2. Individual level

Biological roots and motivation

Biology and Motivation: Theory and research on aggression and violence include the position that aggression is instinctive, deeply rooted in human nature and psyche, as well as argument that it is a secondary motive deriving from general response to frustration (L.Berkowitz) or from social reinforcement (A.Bandura).

K.Lorenz' ethological approach tried to "extrapolate war from human instinct". Such approach justifies war itself, in part by diminishing our own human responsibility to behave more peaceful. Nether the less, in his book "On aggression" he stressed some certain species-preserving aspects of aggressions applied to human beings as well:

providing an opportunity for competition within a species, after which the most fit, will emerge to produce the next generation.

Achieving spacing and population control, to minimize the disadvantages of overpopulation

establishing a means whereby the pair bond can be strengthened, as by shared aggression of a mated pair against competitors.

Some scientists have even argued that men, because they haveY-chromosomes, are by nature violent, that violence is inherent to the male species, stemming from high levels of testosterone in the male (Holliday, Laurel. The violent sex: male psychobiology and the evolution of consciousness. Guernevill CA: Bluestocking, 1978).

Freud emphasized that violence is deeply rooted in human nature and the ways to deal with these aggressive drives is to channel them constructively and learn nonviolent ways of expressing them.

Other theories suggest that aggression is the results of hostility brought about by frustration. According to this approach human beings are goal- oriented and as long as they make progress toward achieving their goals they don’t become frustrated and consequently violent. Frustration builds up to a point where it gets released in aggressive behavior. Franco Fornary argues that war and violent behavior come from deep- seated frustrations and expresses an individual's deep- hidden sadistic impulses, attempt ion to destroy an enemy that is projected out from dark parts of the self. The way to eliminate war and violence, according to this theory, is to raise children in a way that reduce internal tensions by eradicating the element of domination from the parent- child relationship, given them opportunity to express themselves freely, teaching them to articulate their needs, and responding to those needs reduces the production of angry dark sides within an individual which become the driving force for aggressive, violent behavior (Fornary, Franco. The psychoanalysis of War. New York: Atheneum, 1961)

The third set of theories concerning individual aggression and violence emphasizes the role of social conditioning in aggressive behavior. According to this approach, human beings acquire violent behaviors by observing friends, family members, images in the culture, and significant others. Since human beings learn violent ways to express their aggressive tendencies, they will practice violence if they get rewarded for it. Positive reinforcement of nonviolent behaviors is the best way to change aggression (Schever, Klaus R., Abeles, Ronald P., Fisher, Claude S. Human Agression and conflict (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975} Learning how to compete, and that every situation is a confrontation which translates into a win-lose situation, teaches people to devalue cooperation.

Some factors influence individuals' violent behavior:

  • collective power of group, state or nation can be used to wage war, when people identify with these collective bodies and want to defend their group interests when they are threatened.
  • aggressive actions of individual leaders play an important role in building public sentiment to support warlike actions.
  • displaced aggression, where a frustrated person may not be able to express his or her frustrations at the cause of ill feelings, so he\she places them on some other source, such as the "commies", or other groups which are said to cause evil in the world.
  • promoting militarism, when people desensitized to violence when they are constantly exposed to violent images.

From a developmental perspective, Volkan argued for the biological basis of a "need for enemies", that develops out of the infant's primitive differentiations between pain and pleasure and between "us and them". Resent research shows that aggression is not intrinsic to human nature. Some authors agued for biological basis of altruism (Hunt). empathy (Plutchik, 1987), cooperation and prosocial behavior (Harcourt, 1991). As some others consider, pride and power motives influence peace and conflict behavior.

perception, cognition and structure of consciousness

Cognitive and perceptual processes. One of the main topics is the image of the enemy. Research of Bronfenbrenner and Hite show that people has mirror images and corresponding perception. Studies of stereotypes show that stereotypes are merely our generalizations about groups of people; they are judgments about the personal traits of categories of people. The process of generalizing about groups of people is a inevitable part of our thinking." People can't afford... to do without stereotypes" (Leyens, Yzerbyt &Shadron, 1994 Stereotypes and social cognition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, p.1)

One of the earliest research on stereotyping shows, that people unwilling to accept members of various ethnic groups into their midst also rejected association with "Wallonians", "Danireans", and "Pireneans"- three fictitious groups. (Hartley, E.L.1946. Problems in prejudice. New York~King's Crown.) The tendency to be very quick to have negative reactions toward out-groups, even fictitious out-group, has been linked with modern trends in cognitive psychology. =people very often discriminate against out- groups, or at least biased against them, almost without exception. One exception, attitudes to high- status out- groups was founded by Sidanius&Pratto (Sidanius, J. &Pratto, F. 1993 The inevitability of oppression and the dynamics of social dominance. In P.M. Sniderman, P.E.Tetlock, &E.C. Garmines (Eds.), Prejudice, politics and the American dilemma. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, pp.173-211) Over the last 30 years psychologist have done extensive work on human cognition as it pertains to the possibility of changing stereotypes. Most studies have found that, given our understanding of how the mind works, changes in biases or stereotypes are quite unlikely. There are, for example, a wide variety of cognitive "mechanisms that serve to protect beliefs from disconfirming information" (Rothbar, M. &John, O.P. 1985 Social categorization and behavioral episodes: a cognitive analysis of the effects of intergroup contact. Journal of Social Issues, 41 (3), p.81-104

Attitudes toward peace were studied only in research of support or oppose particular governmental policies he study of personalities of the liters as Gandhi, Hitler, Stalin, Wilson and so on analyzed leader's approaches to international peace. Frank has written an extensive analysis of how defense mechanisms permit as to deny the dangers we face in tense international confrontations, and Kull has portrayed the rationalizations that policymakers use to help suppress their fears of Cold War confrontation.

two models of thinking

Paradigm shift.

Domination~ Social structure of domination and subordination: humans over nature, men over women, white over people of color, and so on. Psychological structure of dualism- self versus other, subject versus object- underlie the social structure of domination and subordination. Dualistic thinking leads to ignorance of the dialectical nature of reality, encouraging greed, hatred and fear in people’s minds.

Social structured: repression, resistance, militarism, environmental destruction, poverty, racism\ ethnocentrism, anthropomorphism, patriarchy, and feudalism\ capitalism

psychological structure: insecurity, violence, self vs. other, subject vs. object, ignorance, hatred, greed.

Partnerships human with nature, men with women, whites with people of color.

social structure: ecocentrism, feminism, multiculturalism, socialism, peace, ecology, justice, non-violent methods, peace education, peacekeeping.

psychological structure: peace and security, other as self, object as subject, wisdom, compassion, and generosity.

Tolerance.

Tolerance is intentional self-restraint in the face of something one dislikes, objects to, finds threatening, or otherwise has negative attitude toward- usually in order to maintain a social or political group or to promote harmony in a group.

Diversity+Eguality+ Peace= Tolerance

(Vogt, Paul W. Tolerance &Education. Sage Publication: California, 1997)

Kinds of tolerance:

political tolerance- acts in the public sphere, such as giving a speech, demonstrating, distributing leafless, organizing meetings and so on.

moral tolerance- tolerance in the private sphere

social tolerance.

3.Intergroup processes.

The development of positive or negative group relations. The main thesis is that intergroup conflict develops in competition for scare resources. The destructive effects of competitions are exacerbated by a variety of psychological factors, among them ethnic or cultural in-group -out- group biases, poor communication and fear of he power of the adversary, win-lose competitive orientation and self- fulfilling prophecies, which can transform fear into reality. Hostility between groups often produces deleterious effects on their ability to function rationally and effectively in relation to one another, for example groupthink- a phenomenon in which insulated; intimate groups produce dangerous, poorly conceptualized policies sunder stress.

Deleterious effects of hostile group relations. There are two concepts that suggest possible methods of decreasing hostile intergroup relations: Sheriff’s super ordinate goals, that groups share, that can be attained only though joint effort and that serve to redirect groups away from the conditions that separate them and toward the gains they can derive from cooperation; and Osgood’s Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-reduction (GRIT), a procedure designed to effect alternating, unilateral steps to de-escalate or diminish tense international conditions.

The reduction of group conflict. There is a lot of research of effects of third party, mediations, and arbitrations. For example: Fisher and Uri, Bercovitch and Rubin.

4. Conflict as a process

Stages of conflict.

  • general recognition
  • escalating intensity
  • fluctuation at a high level of antagonism
  • going though a transition that leads to significant de-escalation
  • explicit or implicit bargaining sometimes leading to an agreed-upon out-come
  • consequences that affect the next set of conflicts.

Types of conflicts

  • regional conflicts between local rivals, or between arising power and established major power.
  • resource war sparked by conflicts between states or groups over the control or possession of vital water, energy, or mineral supplies.
  • separatist and nationalist conflicts, involving attempts by subordinated ethnontionalist groups to establish their own nation- state
  • irredentist conflicts, involving efforts by a particular ethnontionalist group o expand the boundaries of its current state to encompass neighboring areas inhabited by members of the same group.
  • ethnic, religious, and tribal power struggles, entailing conflicts within states over the distribution of land, jobs, aid funds and other national resources.
  • revolutionary and fundamentalist struggles, involving efforts by ideologically motivated movements (including religious fundamentalists) to impose a particular type of social system on a country through the use of force.
  • prodemocracy and anticolonial struggles, entailing efforts by unrepresented or colonized peoples to achieve freedom and democracy.

 

III. Peacebuilding

1. peace building

peace building as activity.

Strategies for peace.

peace through strength means requires massive armaments which comes from Roman proverb "if you desire peace, prepare for war" and it’s often discussed in terms of balance of power.

pacifism is a total absence of warmaking and the use of violence in daily affairs.

peace with justice implies that peace can be attained by eliminating social oppression and economic exploitation and concerned with poverty, disease, starvation, human misery and violation of human rights.

institution building try to avoid war by creating legal and political alternatives for resolving international conflicts, it is called "peace through politics".

peace education attempts to teach people about peaceful conditions and the process of creating them and hopes not only to inform people about the various aspects of human conflict but also to teach skills of conflict resolution.

Typology of peace movement.

1. movements to eliminate war in general.

2. movements to stop particular aspects of war

3. movements to stop particular war.

(Overy, Bob. How effective are peace movements? Housmans: London. 1984)

Traditions of peacebuilding

Peace making, peacebuilding and peacekeeping

Approaches to peacebuilding.

1. peacemaking means helping to bring parties in conflict to a negotiated agreement and refers to efforts to resolve ode-escalated conflict that has erupted and persisted.

2. peacekeeping involves keeping hostile parties from fating or otherwise doing damage to each other, refers to efforts to sustain a cease-fire that has been agreed to by the belligerents, usually by providing a small buffering force between them.

3. peacebuilding includes such methods as human rights education, economic development and development aid and the restoration of intergroup harmony in a post conflict phase and refers to efforts to heal the wounds of war in such a way to discourage future outbreaks of fighting.

Peacekeeping is the preventions, containment, moderation and termination of hostilities between or within states, though the medium of peaceful third party intervention organized and directed internationally, using multinational forces of soldiers, police and civilians to restore and maintain peace. It includes enforcement action (non- military and military).

Military actions include:

peacekeeping operations to separate warring forces once a cease- fire has been agreed to and to prevent thru resumption of fighting.

peace enforcement, or the use of UN force to deter or resist efforts by belligerents to disrupt or violate a UN imposed peacesettlement

humanitarian intervention, or the use of force to ensure the delivery of food to civilians in war zones, or to prevent massacres of one group by another.

Non- military sanctions include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio and other means of communications, and severance of diplomatic relations, and international embargos, ranging from arms and oil embargoes to full- scale trade embargoes. Such sanctions may be useful on limited goals and their success rate declined from 75 percent in the period 1914-1973 to 28% in the period of 1973- 1984. One of the reasons that sanctions did not succeed within the short time period they were attempted.

actors of peacebuilding

Conflict resolution practice has expanded into five major new domains in recent years:

  1. international governmental organization efforts
  2. nongovernmental organization efforts
  3. institutionalization
  4. training
  5. stages of conflict.

International governmental organization have established centers that employ conflict resolution procedures. For example, Conflict Prevention Center in Vienna (CPC).

Nongovernmental organizations facilitate international conflict resolution and are based in academic research centers, religious bodies and independent institutes. Their activities can include providing training for negotiators, developing policy recommendations, participation in mediation effort.

Institutionalization means, that conflict resolution practices have become institutionalized within and among many organizations. For example, community disputes resolution centers or using of negotiation before issuing a regulation.

Training in negotiation and conflict resolution is increasingly being given in professional schools, including those in law, management, and public administration.

Conflict resolution being applied to many stages of conflict in addition to the stage of de- escalation negotiation: developing strategy to bring adversaries to the negotiation table, to prevent a dispute from escalating into a major destructive conflict, reconciliation, strengthening the relationship during post-settlement stage and so on.

Mediation, third- party resolution of conflict, include such methods as judicial decision (where the third party exercise ultimate coercive decision making power over the parties in the conflict), arbitration (there the third party is expected to propose a solution that may be binding or non binding on the parties), and mediation and problem -solving facilitation (where the third party is expected to facilitate communication and help the parties come up with their own resolution to the conflict). Such methods often classified as "second- track diplomacy". International mediation carried out by leaders and representatives of states, UN officials and representatives of regional organizations.

Citizens' diplomacy, including efforts to "bridge" hostile communities through small- group discussion, citizen exchanges, improvised communications links.

Nonviolence

Violence may be direct, when people give priority to that which most intrudes on their personal peace (nuclear bombs) and indirect (or structural), which occurs when leaders and power exploit or oppress others, and standards of justice are not upheld, it's deprprivation of basic human needs, such as mental retardation and other results of luck of medical care and nutrition as a result of certain kinds of social structures.

Nonviolence- brining about social change without killing. In 19 century such concept was called "passive resistance".

Nonviolence is often associated with a religious or philosophic tradition, especially Buddhism, Jainism or Christian anarchism. In Western culture, nonviolent practice began with members of traditional peace churches- the Quakers, Mennounites, Brethren- who regarded opposition to war and killing as fundamental to the teaching of Jesus.

Nonviolence has two sides~ aggressive ("negative") side emphasizes resistance and civil disobedience the nurturing ("positive") side emphasizes building "the holy experiment", "the peaceful kingdom", or the "beloved community". Nonviolent action or strategy- marches, boycotts, vigils, fasts, picketing, leafleting, strikes. Positive action are reconciliation, love as a value.

The just- war theory, which justified killing, whether in depending themselves against antagonists or in resolving conflicts among themselves (Augustine, Aquinas, 14 century). Only recently the concept of nonviolence was incorporated in the mainstream of Christian teaching (John XXIII' "Pacem in Terris (1967), the Catholic bishops ' 1983 pastoral letter "The challenge of peace: God's promise and our response")

The most important theorist of nonviolence were American Protestants, Adin Ballou (1803- 1890} and WilliamGarrison (1805- 1879}, Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, Gandhi, Martin Luther King

Teaching nonviolence

  1. student have to read the autobiographies of great nonviolent change advocates, such as Gandhi and King.
  2. faculties in the social sciences should have new roles to play in teaching about nonviolence through the emergence of comparative research in social and peace movements that has been published during the past few years.

Nonviolent action includes a variety of methods for struggling with an opponent. If non- military sanctions used in interstate conflict, nonviolent actions used in conflict of individuals and groups again the state or for control of state power. This actions begging to be more and more succeeded even in situations with repressive authoritarian governments and in cultures in which there was no clear tradition of nonviolent actions. The major examples of nonviolent actions are Palestinian intifada, resistance to apartheid in South Africa, prodemocracy efforts in Burma.



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