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   Course Title    Slavic Items and development of nationalism in 19th Century Russia
Lecturer    Vera Dubina
Institution    Samara State University
Country    Russian Fedaration

The aims of the course are to study the relations between the development of the Russian social- political thought and Slavic Items, origin of national self- identity in Russia. The main problems are:

  1. Influence of Western ideas and scholars on the development of Russian social thought.
  2. How have Russians thought of themselves as distinctly Russian, and how have they expressed their ideas in religion, philosophy, social and historical thought and literature?
  3. Origins of ideals and "idols" of Russian education society in connection with Slavic Items.

This special course is a part of the long-term course on Russian history and culture. It is the addition of the mentioned course for second year students.

Chronological frame: The first stage Ė from 18th Century till 50 years of 19 century (Thatís the time when Russian society is beginning to be conscious itself.) The second stage - 60-80s years of 19 century. Thatís the period of political activity of Russian society, when it start to use ideas and theories in practice.

Course Requirements: Final exam and final paper (15-20 pp.) Regular class reports and discussion of reading, which will be divided among seminar participants.



Introductory lecture

Main methods to study Russian social and political thought used by Russian historiography (pre-Revolutionary, Soviet and modern stages). Foreign historiography traditions: primary interest in Russian history in 40-70s years of 19 century (Slavic history chairs opened in Berlin, Vienna), activity of American East society. The period of aspiration study of Russian thought (80-90s years of 19 century). The main problems of foreign historiography in years of Cold war and ideas of modern scholars (I. Berlin, A. Walicki, A. Vucinich).

The main sources on history of Russian thought (theoretical books and articles, social and political journalism, memories and correspondence). Methodology: Positivistic theory of conservative historians (C.F. Olídenburg). The theory of lineal progress developing by liberals (A.A. Kornilov, V.V. Leontovich). Marxist historiography. Foreign methodology Ė Intellectual history. Modern methodology discussions (A.S. Ahiezer, IU. Pivovarov)

Russian "Reflections on the revolution in France" (18- 19 centuries)

Rapid growth period of nobility education. The ideology of Enlightenment is predominated: very popular is the conception of individuality and society. Influence of European thinkers on Russian thought (The Note of Catherine the Great to state committee).

Connections of Russian society with Europe and theire attitude to European way of life and thinking (Fonvisinís "Letters from abroad", Karamzinís "Letters of Russian traveler").

Responce to the French Revolution: E. Burke "Reflections on the Revolutions in France", R. Chateabriand "Memories After the Grave". Liberal reforms of Alexander I and it influence on nobility: Constitutions ideas of Decembrists and Karamzinís "Memories of Ancient and Modern Russia".

The term "Slavs" start to use as a synonym of "Russian" Ė the Shishkovís circle and his contemporaries.

Origin of Slavophilism in Russia: the ideas of Slavic unity and "Organic development"

Different reactions on European thought and ideals in Russian society (P. Chaadaev). The problem of history trends of Russia in social thought: the young part of "Moskvitianin" journal.

Historical theories of slavophiles: people and political power in Russian history, Specific connections between Tsar and people Ė the people rejected to have a political power (A.S. Khomiakov and I. Kireevskii). Contrast between external and internal truth, Russia and Europe, orthodox and catholic religions in works of Slavophiles Also they told about necessity of advanced Russian state in base of internal truth (truth of common people).

Slavic thinkers and Russian public opinion: Russian slavists (Pogodin, Gilferding etc.) The most part of Moscow liberal circle rejected slavophiles theories.

"The slaves are the aliens for Western Europe" and idea of "Narodnost" in Russian social and political thought

"Narodnost" as a state employment: Theory of official Narodnost. (S.S. Uvarov). Controversy of official ideology and society. Different ways to understand "Narodnost" idea.

Developing of organic theory and origin of political nationalist theories. Influence of Crimean war and Polish rebellion: intellectual shock for Russian society. "Narodnost" idea in work of "native soul" thinkers (A.A. Grigoriev, F. M. Dostoevskii). Katkovís "Moscow news" and it influence on society opinion. Growing of nationalistic trends: new works of Dostoevskii and Strakhov and theirs extend from cultural meaning of "native soul" movement. N. Danilevskii and his book "Russia and Europe" (the theory of culture-historical types). "Russia and Europe" is a turning moment in the developing of national ideology (more policy, rejected of progress idea).

Progress in the development of the Slavic Items during the age of "Great reforms": liberal ideology and nationalistic trends.

Political theory of liberalism: the idea of natural low of individuality (Chicherin), different ways of state organization (Kavelin). Evolution of Russian societyís views on conservative and liberal mind in the beginning of the Alexander II reign. Liberalism in opinion of "State history school": S.M. Solovíev and his theory of societyís evolution from family organizations to state.

Liberal and "Narodnost " (Nationality) trends in Russian society and their discussions in journals and newspapers: "Vestnik Evropy" (Courier of Europe), "Russkaia Beseda" (Russian Conversation), "Vremia" (Time) and "Epocha" (Epoch).

Russian political conservators and Slavs in the second half of 19th century

New type of conservatism was formed on the bases of liberal political ideals and national ideology: State and citizenship society definitions, predomination of policy over internal manís world and state profit idea. Katkov Ė Dostoevsky, Samarin Ė Fadeev discussions. Polish rebellions and their influence on Russian-Slavs connections.

Draw the conservative ideas to State ideology. Age of conservative in the reign of Alexander III: practical character of new conservatism ideology. Russian conservatives and society. Russian society negative reflection towards conservatism and government.


Seminars and tutorials

1. Slavophiles views on Russian State

Discussion: Khomiakov A.S. "O starom i novom" (On Ancient and Modern)

Kireevskii I.V. "Deviatnadtsatyi vek" (19th century)

Aksakov I.S. "O russkom vozzrenii" (On Russian views)

Items for discussion

  1. Slavophile conception of the State.
  2. The Tsar and the People.
  3. The role of Orthodox religion.
  4. Slavophiles place in the history of Russian thought.

2. Historical and political ideas of M.P. Pogodin

  1. The "Normanns problem" and Pogodinís history works
  2. Pogodinís journalistic activity. "Moskvitianin"
  3. Pogodinís views on Slavic and Poland Items
  4. Change of Pogodinís ideals in Great Reforms period

3. Panslav movement in Russia and Slavic countries

Milojkovic-Djuric J. Panslavism and National Identity in Russia and in the Balkans. 1830-1880. Images of the self and others. N.Y., 1994.


Required literature


  1. Aksakov K.S. O russkom vozzrenii. Eshche raz o russkom vozzrenii // Russkaia ideia. M., 1992. (On Russian views)
  2. Aksakov I.S. Slaviane i Zapad // Aksakov I.S. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii. T.2. CPb., 1891. (The Slavs and the West)
  3. Aksakov I.S. pisíma iz provintsii. M., 1991. (The letters from province)
  4. Gradovskii G.K. Itogi (1862-1907). Istoriko-politicheskie ocherki i statíi. Kiev. 1908. (Conclusions (1862-1097). Historical and political articles).
  5. Grigoríev A.A. Razvitie idei narodnosti v nashei literature posle smerti Pushkina // Grigoríev A.A. Sobranie sochinenii. Vyp.3. M., 1915. (The development of nationality idea in Russian literature after Pushkinís deth).
  6. Danilevskii N.Ja. Rossia i Evropa. M., 1991. (Russia and Europe).
  7. Dashkova E.R. Zapiski. Pisíma sester M. i K. Vilímont iz Rossii. M., 1987. (Memories. Letters of Vilmontís sisrters from Russia).
  8. Dostoevskii F.M. Polemika protiv M.N. Katkova // Dostoevskii F.M. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii. T.19. L., 1985. (Discussions with Katkov).
  9. Kavelin K.D. Hash umstvennyi stroi. Statíi po filosofii russkoi istorii a kulítury. M., 1989. (Our intellectual life. Articles on Russian culture and philosophy).
  10. Karamzin N.M. Zapiska o drevnei i novoi rossii v politicheskom i grazdanskom ee otnosheniiach. M., 1991. (The memories of Anchient and Modern Russia).
  11. Katkov M.N. Sobranie peredovyh statey "Moskovskih Vedomostey" 1863 g. M., 1897. (Collection of main articles of "Moscow news")
  12. Katkov M.N. O samoderzhavii i konstitutsii. Moscow, 1905. (On autocracy and constitution)
  13. Kireevskii I.I. Otvet A.S. khomiakovu // Kireevskii I.I. Izbrannye statíi. M., 1984. (Response to Khomiakov)
  14. Pobedonostsev K.P. Moskovskiy sbornik. Moscow, 1901. (Moscow anthology).
  15. K.P. Pobedonostsev i ego korrespondenty. Pisíma i zapiski. Moscow - St. Petersburg, 1923. (Pobedonostsev and his correspondence).
  16. Pogodin M.P. Sobranie statei, pisem i rechei po povodu Slavianskogo voprosa. M., 1878. (Collection of articles, letters, speeches on Slavic items).
  17. Pogodin M.P. Statíi o polískom voprose. M., 1864. (Articles on polish items).
  18. Solovíev V.S. Natsionalínyi vopros v Rossii // Solovíev V.S. Literaturnaia kritika. M., 1990. (National item in Russia).
  19. Solovíev S.M. Moi zapiski dlia detei moich, a esli mozno i dlia drugich // Solovíev S.M. Izbrannye trudy, zapiski. M., 1983. (My memories for my children and, probably for others).
  20. Strakhov N.N. Boríba s Zapadom v nashei literature. T.1,3. Kiev. 1898. (Struggle with thw West in our Literature).
  21. Ustrialov N.G. Uchebnik russkoi istorii do 1855. Petrozavodsk. 1997. (Textbook on Russian history till 1855).
  22. Fadeev R.A. Russkoe obshchestvo v nastojashchem i budushchem (Chem nam bytí?) St. Petersburg, 1874. (Russian society and theirs enemies).
  23. Fonvizin D.I. Pisíma iz-za granitsy // Fonvizin D.I., Radishchev A.N. Izbrannoe. M., 1984. (Letters from abroad)
  24. Feoktistov E.N. Za kulisami politiki i literatury. 1848-1896. M., 1991. (Behind the scenes of Politic and Literature).
  25. Khomiakov A.S. Mnenie inostrantsev o Rossii // Khomiakov A.S. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii. T.1.M., 1878. (The foreignersí opinion on Russians).
  26. Khomiakov A.S. Mnenie russkih ob inostrantsah // Khomiakov A.S. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii. T.1.M., 1878. (The Russiansí opinion on foreigners).
  27. Khomiakov A.S O starom i novom // Khomiakov A.S Sochinenia v 2 t. T.1. M., 1994. (On Anchient and Modern).
  28. Chaadaev P.Ja. Statíi i pisíma. M., 1989. (Articles and letters).
  29. Chicherin B.N. Moskva 40h gogov. M., 1997. (Moscow in 40th years).

Russian Literature

  1. Anisimov E.V. Rossia v seredine 18 veka. M., 1986. (Russia in the middle of the 18th century).
  2. Artemíeva T.V. Mihail Shcherbatov. SPb. 1994.
  3. Vdovina L.N. Dvorianskii constitutsionalism v politicheskoi zhizni Rossii 18 veka // Monarchia i narodovlastie v kulíture prosveshchenia. M., 1995. (Constitution ideas of nobility in Russian political life in 18th century).
  4. Vlastí i reformy. Ot samoderzhavnoy k sovetskoy Rossii. SPb, 1996. (Reforms and autocracy).
  5. Zayonchkovkiy P.A. Rossiyskoe samoderzhavie v kontse XIX stoletija. (Politicheskaya reakcija 80 - nachala 90-h godov) M, 1970. (Russian autocracy in the middle of 19th century).
  6. Zeníkovskii V.V. Russkie myslitely i Evropa. M., 1997. (Russian Thinkers and Europe).
  7. Kornilov A.A. Obshchestvennye dvizhenia pri Aleksandre II: istoricheskie ocherki. 1855-1880g. M., 1909. (Social movement in the reign of Alexander II).
  8. Levandovskii A.A. Vremia Granovskogo. U istokov formirovania russkoi intelligentsii. M., 1990. (Times of Granovskii; origins of Russian intelligence).
  9. Leontovich V.V. Istoria liberalizma v Rossii. 1762-1914. M., 1995. (A History liberalism in Russia. 1762-1914).
  10. Lotman Iu. M. Russo i russkaia cultura 18- nachala 19 veka // Russo Zh.-Zh. Traktaty. M., 1969. (Russaue and Russian culture).
  11. Lotman Iu. M. Sotvorenie Karamzina. M., 1987. (Creation of Karamzin).
  12. Milukov P.N. Glavnye techenia russkoi obshchestvennoi mysli. SPb., 1913. (Main trends of Russian social thought).
  13. Pivovarov Iu. Ocherki istorii obshchestvenno-politicheskoi mysli 19 pervoi poloviny 20 stoletia. M., 1997. (Essays on History of social and political thought).
  14. Tvardovskaya V.A. Ideologija poreformennogo samoderzhavija (M.N. Katkov i ego izdanija). M, 1978. (Ideologe of autocracy after reforms).
  15. Ustrialov N. Politicheskaia doktrina slavianophilístva. Harbin. 1925. (Political theory of Slavophilism).
  16. Tsimbaev N.I. Slavianofilístvo. M., 1985. (Slavofilism).

Foreign Literature

  1. Walicki A. V krugu konservativnoi utopii // Slavianofilístvo i zapadnichestvo: conservativnaia i liberalínaia utopia v rabotah A. Valitskogo. M., 1991. #1. (Translation of "Slavopiles utopia").
  2. Vittekker C. Graf Sergei Sevenovich Uvarov i ego vremia. M., 1999. (Translation of "S.S. Uvarov and his time").
  3. Berlin Isaiah. Russian Thinkers. 1994.
  4. Byrnes R.E. Pobedonostsev. His life and thought. Bloomington-London, 1968.
  5. Dowler W. Dostoevsky, Grigoríev and Native Soil conservatism. Toronto. 1982.
  6. Greenfeld L. The Formation of the Russian National Identity: The Role of Status Insecurity and Ressentiment // Comparative studies in Society and History. V.32. #3. 1990.
  7. Kohn H. The idea of nationalism. A study of its origin and background. Toronto, 1969.
  8. Lieven D. Russia's rulers under the old regime. New Haven - London, 1989.
  9. Martin A.M. Romantics, reformers, reactionaries. Russian conservative thought and politics in the reign of Alexander I. Dekalb, 1997.
  10. Masarik T.G. The Spirit of Russia. L., N.Y.V.1,2. 1961.
  11. McKean R.B. The Russian constitutional monarchy. 1907-1917. London, 1977.
  12. Pipes R. Russian conservatism in the second half of the nineteenth century// Slavic review. 1971. Vol.30. N1.
  13. Raeff M. A reactionary liberal: M.N.Katkov// The Russian review. 1952. Vol.11. N3.
  14. Riasanovsky N.V. "Nationality" in state ideology during the reign of Nicholas I //The Russian review. 1960. Vol.19.
  15. Riasanovsky Nikolas V. A History of Russia. N.Y., Oxford. 1993.
  16. Thaden Edward C. Conservative Nationalism in XIX century Russia. Seatle. 1964.
  17. Walicki A. A History of Russian Thought from the Enlightenment to Marxism. Stanford. 1979.

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