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   Course Title    Politics and Policies of European Union
Lecturer    Marina Nistotskaya
Institution    Kuban State University
Country    Russia


Aim of the course: the course will examine the historical development, the institutions and their interaction between each other and with national institutions, policy-making machinery, mail policies and recent challenges of the European Union. The main aim of the course is to provide a detailed picture of EU policies and politics, to enable the student of policy analysis, to show predominant patterns and characteristic styles of EU development.

Role of the course in the overall degree curriculum: this course is mandatory for the ‘International Relation’ diploma degree program, key parts of the course (so called didactical units) were proposed by Russian Federation state educational standards.

Methods used: under the state standard provisions the course must have 32 lecturing hours. They will be lectures with pauses, lectures-excursions, lectures-consultations, feedback lectures, and also other kinds of auditorium activity as writing, group working, discussions, guided design case studies.

Course content:

 

February 12, 2001

The idea of unite Europe in historical perspective.

This class analyzes antique inheritance, the role of Christianity, the contribution of European thinkers of XII-XIX centuries into development European unification.

 

February 19, 2001

Treaty of Paris (European Coal and Steel Community) as a pilot project of modern integration blocks.

This class specifies economic and political preconditions for the ECSC appearance, the role of French diplomacy (particularly Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman), answers the question why coal and steel were chosen as a field of first integration experience, why French and German participation was crucial for the success of the experiment. ECSC’s agenda.

 

February 26, 2001

The institutional design of the European Coal and Steel Community

This class sets the policy process of European Community in 1950-1980 in its institutional context. High Authority of the ECSC (future European Commission) as a both secretariat and sort of executive power within European integration. The Council of Ministers as a collective forum for representatives of member governments. The European Court of Justice as a arbitration and legal interpretation mechanism. The Assembly (European Parliament) as a parliamentary chamber. The Economic and Social Committee as a forum for consulting among economic sectors and social groups.

 

March 5, 2001

Expanding integration – Rome Treaties of 1957 and Communities institutional development in 1960s.

The class examines the Treaties of European Economic Community and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in context of expanding the ECSC experience. Luxembourg crisis and compromise block reforms of 1965-66. Merger Treaty of 1965 combined institutions of three originally separate Communities.

 

March 12, 2001

Main Communities Policies in 1960-1970s: Budget and Accession.

The Budget: where EU money comes from, how and who it is spent. Budgetary Treaty of 1970 – own resources created, some budgetary powers transferred to European Parliament. Budgetary Treaty of 1975 – more powers to European Parliament, new Court of Auditors created. Act of Accession of 1972 admitted Denmark, Ireland and UK. Forming UK’s ‘special position’ within EC.

 

March 19, 2001

Main Communities Policies in 1960-1970s: CAP and Competition Policy.

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) as a welfare state institution transferred to the European level, farming organizations as monopolistic intermediaries. Introduction into mechanism of income maintenance and income security for farmers.

Competition Policy: anti-trust, state aids, regulation state ownership and liberalizing monopolies, merger regulation.

 

March 26, 2001

Main Communities Policies in 1960-1970s: European Trade Policy, Regional Policy, Environmental Policy, European Monetary System.

Common external tariff as a requirement for establishing customs union. EU competence in common trade policy: international trade negotiations (setting of objectives, conduct of negotiations, adoption of the results), instruments for commercial defense (anti-dumping procedures, the trade barriers regulation), trade with developing countries.

Increasing of regional disparities in EC and establishing the European Regional Development Fund (1975).

Appearance of ‘green-minded’ governments and advocacy groups in European politics, UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm (1972) and Community’s turn (1973) into that policy arena which wasn’t explicitly mentioned in the Treaty of Rome.

The EMS (1979): coordination and asymmetry.

 

April 2, 2001

Crises and stagnation of 1970s and early 1980s and EC’s reaction.

World oil and financial crises of the beginning of 1970s and their influence on EC development. Large trade deficits, soared inflation and unemployment, decreasing direct investments as major indicators of European economic recession in the early 1980s.

The explosion of academic and political debates on EU’s reaction to economic recession: ‘welfare state’ and Keynesianism vs. neo-liberalism (European Round Table of Industrialists), functionalists (M. Thatcher) vs. institutionalists (A. Spinelli Report, 1983).

Shtutgard European Summit (1983) and Solemn Declaration on European Union - commitment to accelerate European Integration. Greece accession (1981) and Agreement of Iberian enlargement (1984).

 

April 9, 2001

The Single Market: core of the European Integration in 1980s.

The Ad Hoc Committee on Institutional Reform (Dooge Committee) on reforms in the Community’s decision-making procedures. Working of Intergovernmental Conference.

The new Commission arrival in January 1985: Jacques Delors and Lord Cockfield.

The Milan European Council (June 1985), adoption the White Paper. Luxembourg Summit (December 1985), Single European Act was agreed.

 

April 16, 2001

The Single Market: the core of the European Integration in 1980s.

Changes in policy-making under SEA provisions: more qualified majority voting (QMV) in Council, some legislative power for European Parliament, new Court of First Instance. SEA regulatory model of the EC policy process. Introduction the new policy scope.

The 1992 Program (Cockfiel plan) – an extraordinarily legislation program and its implementation. Winners and losers of European single market.

 

April 23, 2001

Political upheavals in Central and Eastern Europe countries and in the former USSR of the late 1980s and EC’s reaction.

The revolutions in CEE countries in the course of 1989, rapid moves towards German unification. The starting points of policy towards the CEECs. Intergovernmental conferences on economic and monetary as well as political union of 1990-1991 within EC.

Maastricht Treaty architecture – three pillar structure of European Union. More QMV in Councils. Formalization of European Council. Some co-decision for European Parliament. Introduction of new institution – Committee of Regions. Subsidiarity and citizenship. EU policy-making as a multi-level and intensive transgovernmental process.

Expanding policy scope.

Difficult road of ratification of the Treaty of European Union (TEU).

 

April 30, 2001

The first pillar of the TEU: Economic and Monetary Union.

Negotiating European Monetary Union in the end of 1980s: political coalition vs. skepticism of many economists and the caution of central bankers to embed EMU in the Treaty of European Union (TEU). The TEU’s provisions on EMU. Conditions for entry and the convergence criteria. The Pact of Stability and Growth. The timetable of EMU implementation (agreed in 1995). EMU implementation: markets, politicians, societies. Voluntary outsiders of monetary integration.

 

May 7, 2001

The second and third pillars of the TEU: Common Foreign and Security Policy and Justice and Home Affairs.

Introduction: European political cooperation in 1970-1990s. European transformations and the need of political union (1990-1992): the 1991 IGC. TEU provisions of CFSP.

The CFSP and the conflict in Bosnia.

Origins of justice and home affairs cooperation. TEU provisions on JHA. The evolution of the third pillar in the 1990s as an archipelago of linkages.

 

May 14, 2001

Main Communities Policies in 1980-1990s.

The CAP: first attempts to reduce agricultural surpluses (1984-1987) by introduction of milk quotas, restrictive price policies for most other agricultural products. MacSherry reforms (1992). GATT and the European politics of agriculture. The new politics of agriculture: The Agenda 2000 proposals (1997) and the Berlin compromise (1999).

Budgetary politics over the time: Mediterranean enlargement, SEA and Delors-1 (1987-1988). Delors-2 (1992). Agenda 2000 (1997) and the Berlin agreement (1999).

Cohesion and Structural Funds: The SEA and Delors-1, the Treaty on European Union and Delors-2. The implementation of the structural funds: programming, concentration (six objectives), additionality as a principle for structural fund expenditures, partnership. Agenda 2000 and Berlin agreement.

Social Policy: social policy until the early 1990s, Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers (1989) and the 1989 Action Program. The Treaty of Amsterdam as a watershed in the development of social policy competence on Union level.

 

May 21, 2001

Treaty of Amsterdam: what has changed in Europe?

Responding to citizens’ concerns: the EU and its citizens. Citizens’ rights: employment and social affairs; security, freedom and justice; the environment, health and consumers’ rights. People’s values and aspirations.

The identity of the Union on the international stage: the SFDP (decision-making procedures, structures, defense). The EU and the Kosovo conflict.

HJA: Incorporation Shengen agreements into EU body.

The EU institutions.

 

May 28, 2001

Eastern Enlargement

The relationship with the CEECs until the late of 1980s. The immediate responses to the political changes of the late 1980s. The Europe Agreements. From association to pre-accession: The Copenhagen European Council (1993) and the prospect of membership, The Essen European Council (1994) and the pre-accession strategy, The Commission White Paper on regulatory alignment !995).

Towards an enlargement policy: The Madrid European Council (1995), Institutional Reform: the IGC (1996) and the Amsterdam Treaty, Internal policy reforms and Agenda 2000.

Towards accession: selecting the candidates (the Luxembourg European Council, 1997), accession negotiations (starting in 1998), the Accession Partnership, policy reform and funding (the Berlin European Council, 1999).

 

READINGS:

  1. MANDATORY:
  2. Wallace H., Wallace W. Policy-Making in the European Union. Forth Edition. Oxford, 2000.

    http://www.europe.eu.int

  3. RECOMMENDED:

    Hix. S. The Political System of the European Union. London: Macmillan. 1999.

    Dinan D. Ever-Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration, 2nd edition. London: Macmillan. 1999.

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