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   Course Title    Changes in Spatial Economy in Europe: EU Enlargement
Lecturer    Veronika N. Kholinav
Institution    Russian Peoples' Friendship University
Country    Russia


The main purpose of the course is to help students implement theoretical conclusions of Political Economy to the circumstances of real economic performance in Europe and to learn to use quantitative methods in economic research.

1. Academic Aims within the discipline

To give knowledge about a history of creation and features of operations of the EC, giving special attention to changes of spatial pattern of economics under the influencing of integration processes (change of a specialisation of industrial and agricultural regions in conditions of existence of the unified market). Special attention is given to the problems of the EU-enlargement from the point of view of a territorial inequality (differences in level and quality of development of economics between EC-regions) and capabilities of its overcoming, and problems of Cupertino. In border-regions.

Students must be able (in theory):

    • To understand basic principles of economic integration;
    • To understand consequences of economic integration for countries of different level of economic development;
    • To develop an understanding of the equity-efficiency model to the practice during the integration process, giving special attention to EU enlargement;
    • To discuss the concepts of efficiency, equity, and justice and the types of economic systems;
    • To make written and oral presentations that demonstrate appropriate consideration of audience, purpose, and information to be conveyed;
    • To pose questions and contribute their own information or ideas in group discussions in order to acquire new knowledge;
    • To interpret problems, solve problems, and make informal decisions;
    • To write essays with a focus on integration problems, logically related ideas, and adequate supporting details - using appropriate statistics and methods of research;
    • To collect, analyse, interpret, and display data on integration problems;
    • To read and interpret tables, maps, to make comparisons, predictions;
    • To locate, access, and evaluate resources to identify appropriate information;
    • To use self-generated questions, note-taking, summarising, and outlining to enhance learning;
    • To forecast economic problems and identify appropriate policy solutions;
    • To develop skills needed for informed participation in public affairs;

Students must be able to make (practical skills):

  • Estimation of comparative profitability, geographic position of economical objects;
  • Estimation of change of a geopolitical ruling position of Russia (in a context of the extension of the EC);
  • Estimation of a level of social and economic development of a country through a system of parameters;
  • Selection of the most essential parameters for realisation of classifications;
  • Allocation of types of countries on a technique of multicharacter classification;
  • Creation of theme cartograms,
  • Looking up territorial economical statistics in a network, Internet;
  • Analyse statistics of foreign trade in dynamics (volumes, geography and commodity pattern of export and import) on countries and world-regions, to plot the charts and cartograms on a problem, and to interpret outcomes of the analysis.
  • Estimation of distribution of the national income between regions- plotting Lorence-curve and mapping of outcomes of the analysis.

2. Role and place of a course in the program of training

a) Locating the content of the course within the discipline

The course is advised as a special course (course on selection) for the 3rd year students of economical faculty, speciality "World (Global) Economics", "Economics", "Management", " State and Municipal Control".

The course promotes a deep and practical study of facts of present-day reality of integration processes.

The theme of the course is an important part of Economics (special field - European integration and spatial structure, the inequality in development)

b) Locating the course within the curriculum

The course follows the study of main theoretical problems of economic geography, economics.

3. Technique

The course consists of 18 educational weeks, 72 academic hours (36 hours of the lecture, 36 - practical occupations).

4. Assessment

a. One essay - written annualises of the problem (30 % of the total mark), to be submitted to the Department of Economic and Political Geography at the 15-th seminar. The abstract 10 pages of the text, charts, presentation in Power Point. The essay must be:

- Typescript on one side of the page - 10 pages;

- Double-spaced ;

- Within the specified length - plus or minus 10 percent;

-Submitted before the announced deadline;

-Presentation of the issue (Power Point, 10-12 slides), 15 minutes, during the last 4 seminars.

b. Three 20-minutes written test examinations, 20 questions each (30 % of the total mark).

c. Final test (including questions on the whole material) 60-minutes written examination, 40 questions (40 % of the total mark) at the end of the semester.

5. Course Requirements

Attendance at seminars is obligatory and will be monitored. The key to successful seminars is participation. Each student should prepare for a seminar class by reading from among the suggested texts. Essays handed in after the deadline will not be marked.

The course is taught using both lectures and seminars. Students should be prepared to participate in an active, moderated class discussion.

6. Essay Questions:

  1. Intra-EU Trade 1970-2000
  2. The EU and Central and Eastern Europe: changing trade patterns 1970-2000
  3. The EU and Developing World: changing trade patterns 1970-2000
  4. EU-15 and East Europe - degree of an openness of economics and dependence on import.
  5. Metallurgy EU-15 and countries of East Europe - complementation or competition?
  6. Motor industry EU-15 and countries of East Europe -complementation or competition?
  7. Power engineering EU-15 and countries of East Europe - complementation or competition?
  8. Grain economy EU-15 and countries of East Europe - complementation or competition?
  9. Animal industries EU-15 and countries of East Europe - complementation or competition?
  10. Food-processing industry EU-15 and countries of East Europe - complementation or competition?
  11. Tourist business ??-15 and countries of East Europe - complementation or competition?
  12. Installation of political boundaries in Europe after the Second world (global) war.
  13. Migrations inside EU-15: dynamics 1980-2000.
  14. Migration EU-15 and East Europe -10: dynamics 1980-2000.
  15. Immigration in EU -15: dynamics 1980-2000.
  16. Change of a quality of life in countries EU-15, 1980-2000.
  17. Territorial justice in Italy and Spain - changes 1980-2000.
  18. Territorial justice in Integrated Germany- 2000.
  19. Territorial justice in Portugal and Greece - changes 1980-2000.
  20. Territorial justice in Finland and Sweden - changes 1980-2000.
  21. Territorial distribution of the investments EU-25, changes 1980-2000.
  22. Geography of banking activity EU-25.
  23. Territorial differences in a pollution of the environment EU-15.
  24. Territorial differences in a pollution of the environment EU-15 and countries of East Europe.

7. Lectures' Content

Educational weeks . Lectures:

1 Introduction. The purposes, problems and technique of a course.

2 Theory of economic integration and history of creation of the EC. Stages of economic integration (preferential zone, free trade zone, customs union, economical union, and political union). Reasons of creation of the EC - features of a post-war economical situation in Europe. The Marshall's plan, European Association of Coal and Steel, Rome Agreement (1957). Creation of the custom’s union and common agrarian market. European Free Trade Area. Stages of integration in Western Europe. Structure of head bodies of the EU and their functions. From economical union - to political union.

3-4 Territorial consequences of economic integration 1960-1980-2000. Integration's influence on territorial structure of countries of different social and economic types and levels of economic' s development. Formation of specialised enterprises and specialised regions for the common market. Consequences of joining EU for Great Britain, Ireland, Denmark - change of territorial and economic structure of an economy. Joining EU of Spain and Portugal. The Maastricht agreement. Joining of Austria, Finland, and Sweden.

5 Economic and territorial structure of EU-economics. GNP and economic-active population structure. EU - resource potential. Mining industry. Fuel and energy complex. Metallurgy, Chemical industry. Textile industry. Agro-industial complex. Agrarian policy of the EC. Transport network. Services. Tourism.

6 Territorial structure of EU-economics. Features of spatial organisation of EU-economics. Centres of economic development. Half-peripherals and peripherals. Types of economic regions in Europe and their geographic situation. Regional economic specialisation.

7. Intra-countries differences in a level and type of economical development. EU - countries: "rich" and "poor". Differences in the economical potentials of countries of Western Europe. Rates of economic growth. EU-countries - differences in rates of economic growth 1960 - 2000, differences in levels of incomes and quality of life. A problem of overcoming these differences. Parameters of convergence. Conformity of parameters of countries – to the terms of the EC-level.

8 EU-15 - regions. Types of regions, regional policy. Territorial intra-state balance of EU-countries. Countries with the least and greatest disproportion. Consequences of joint Germany. Italy as the country of the greatest contrasts. Paths of development of depressive regions. Types of regional policy. Funds of regional development.

9 Perspectives of EU-extension: the candidates of the first and second order. Alert attitude of the population of some countries to European integration. Reasons of isolation of Switzerland and Norway. A straddling of an Euro-zone and EU-member-countries. Consequences of collapse of socialist alliance for European integration. Candidate countries. Socio-economic indices of East European countries and their conformity to convergence-criteria.

10 Importance of raw-resources and human potential of Eastern and Central European countries of EU. Situation of economic performance and social life in former socialist countries in 1990-2000. Raw resources and their distribution. Perspectives for specialisation of Eastern and Central European countries in the EU. Economically active population, educational level. Problems of unemployment.

11External economic relations of EU-countries (investment, foreign trade, external debts). Reorientation of foreign trade of Russia and East Europe. Investments of Western Europe and their structure (territorial and economic distribution). The problem of external debts and credits. The TASIS program. Relationships of EU, NATO and Russia. Russia as a member of Europe Council.

12 Problem of integration of countries of East Europe in EU. Strengthening of a regional inequality. Conformity of parameters of East European countries to the criteria of convergence. A problem of strengthening territorial disproportion at the extension of EU. Perspective depressive regions and problems of reorientation of their economics. Political problems of the extension of EU.

13 Industry of East European countries in a context of unified Europe. Industrial structure of East European industry. A problem of quality and competitive strength of an industrial output. Perspective branches of specialisation.

14 Specialisation of an agriculture of countries of East Europe: complementation or competition with EU -15? Branch pattern of an agriculture. Agroindustrial complex. The main types of agriculture and regions of specialised production. Perspectives of an intrusion of the unified standards of quality of agricultural commodity.

15. Problem of transport accessibility and transport constructionbuilding in unified Europe. Creation of new transport lines - increase of a permeability of European space. Transport network. Problems of motor transport and pollution of the environment. A condition of an automobile park in East Europe and degree of its deterioration. Highways. Problems of a railway transportation.

16 Funds of regional development. Problems of depressive regions. Methods of detection of depressive regions. Typology of depressive regions. The investments in economics and social sphere as the factor of economical growth. Problems and perspectives of border-co-operation.

17 Outlook of formation of specialised regions in EU-25. Industrial zones and regions. Specialised agrarian and agroindustrial regions. Transport clusters. An integrated power grid.

18 Territorial problems of ethnic minorities and border co-operation. Regions of residing of national minorities. Potential regions of the separatism. Border disputes and border co-operation. State boundaries in conditions of unified Europe. Problems of relationships with the third countries.

Seminar Content

Educational weeks Practical occupations:

1 Stages of economic integration. Types of integration associations in a world.

2 Occupation in the computer class. The Internet-navigator - EU information. How to find statistical information on economics and policy of EU.

3 EU - role in world (global) economics - analysis of dynamic statistical series - (1957-1960 - 1965 - 1970 - 1973 - 1980 - 1986 - 1990 - 1993 - 1995 -2000). Problems and parameters: 1. GDP - share in a world economy, countries - leaders and outsiders. 2. GNP per capita - countries - EU - members, in matching with the main types of countries. 3. Population (on the main demographic parameters) and quality of life parameters. 4. EU' role (and countries - members) in world trade. Commodity and geographic pattern of export and import.

4 Test 1. The business game. Arguments for and against joining to the EU of Finland, Sweden, Austria, Norway.

5 Technique of countries' comparations. Dynamics of branch structure of economics EU-15 and 10 countries of East Europe - candidates, conformity to yardsticks of convergence.

6 Industrial clusters (northern and southern), their specialisation and role. The main regions and zones of specialised production in EU-15 and countries of East Europe and outlook of their development in conditions of unified Europe.

7 Territorial justice in EU-15. An estimation of a territorial inequality (Lorence' curve, plotting cartograms). The analysis of territorial justice. A territorial justice in EU-25. An estimation of a territorial inequality (Lorence' curve, plotting cartograms). The analysis of the obtained outcomes.

8 Test 2. Types of regional policy and activity of Regional development' funds. Problems of depressive regions. Discussion: model of survival of old-industrial regions.

9 Types of countries in Central and East Europe (10 candidates for an entrance in the EC and other countries - republic former USSR) on a level of social and economic development. Most significant variables for classification, creation of multivariable classification. The place of Russian Federation.

10 Raw resources' potential in East Europe and their economical estimation. The population: differences in demographic indexes and indexes of quality of life.

11 Statistical analysis: geography, dynamics of foreign trade the EU, East Europe and Russia 1980-2000

12 Geopolitical role of Russian Federation: change after disintegration of USSR, extension of the EU towards East. ??liningrad region - enclave of Russian Federation inside the EU.

13 Activity: cartographic and statistical information - toponims - main industrial regions of East Europe: a specialisation, ecological repercussions of economic activities.

14 Discussion: EU-25: for and against. Presentations of the reports (3 students)

15 Presentation of the reports (6 students)

16 Presentation of the reports (6 students)

17 Presentation of the reports (6 students)

18 Presentation of the reports (2 students) Final test


A. Mandatory

7. Des Dinan, Ever Closer Union. - London: Macmillan, 1996

8. The new Europe – Economy, Society, Environment. Ed. Pinder, D. – Willey, England, 1999

9. Internet ’ website

10. Entering 21 Century – World Development report 1999-2000 – World bank, Oxford Univ. Press , 2000

11. P.Taylor, ‘The New Dynamics of EC integration in the 1980s’, in J.Lodge (ed.), The European Community and the Challenge of the Future (first edition), 1989, pp.3-25.

12. C.Archer, Organizing Europe (second edition), Edward Arnold, 1994

13. Brent F. Nelsen and Alexander C-G Stubb, The European Union: Readings on the Theory and Practice of European Integration, Lynne Rienner, 1994,

14. A.Duff, J.Pinder and R.Pryce (eds.), Maastricht and Beyond: Building the European Union, 1994

15. B.Nelsen and A.C-G Stubb, The European Union:Readings on the Theory and Practice of European Integration, 1994

16. J.Round, The European economy in perspective : essays in honour of Edward Nevin, 1994,

17. L.Tsoukalis, The New European Economy: The Politics and Economics of Integration (second edition), Oxford University Press, 1993

Additional reading

1. Brigid Laffan, Integration and Cooperation in Europe, Routledge, 1992, Chapter 6.

2. The European Union: Readings on the Theory and Practice of European Integration, Rienner, 1994.

3. M. Smith, "The European Union, foreign economic policy and the changing world arena" in Journal of European Public Policy, vol.1, no.2, 1994.

4. Jaroslav Jaks, "The EC and Central and Eastern Europe" in Svein Andersen and Kjell Eliassen (eds.), Making Policy in Europe: The Europeification of National Policymaking, SAGE, 1993

5. Knud Erik Petersen, "The European Community and Eastern Europe" in Ole Norgaard et al, The European Community in World World Politics, Pinter, 1993

6. Lister, The European Union and the South: Relations with Developing Countries, Routledge, 1997.

7. Atkinson A. The Economics of Inequality.– Oxford, 1975.

8. The Times History of the World. Ed. By Geoffry Barraclough – Times Books, L, 1999

9. The Atlases of the Future – Ed. By J.Pearson – L., 1998

10. Dent, Cristopher M., The European Economy, 1997, Routledge, London.

11. Burgess, Adam, Divided Europe. The New Domination of the East, 1997, Pluto Press, London.

12. Stirk, Peter M. R., A History of European Integration since 1914, 1996, Pinter, London.

13. European Report/Europolitique

14. Foreign Affairs

15. The Economist

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