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   Course Title    National Question in the German Reich 1871-1918
Lecturer    Nijolë Strakauskaitë
Institution    Klaipëda University
Country    Lithuania

The course, lasting one semester, consists of 12 units, 90 minutes each. It has the form of lectures and seminars. The general aim is to turn students' attention to the growing political pressure on the language, ethnicity and identity problem.

I pay special attention to the national minorities' situation in East Prussia in connection with the German Reich politics. I also try to compare Polish and Lithuanian national movements in the situation of the aggressive nationalism of the German Reich.

  1. Specific Characteristics of the German Question
    • the Germans' "specific path" as the sum of peculiarly German features
    • the Prussians as a historical problem
  2. The foundation of the Reich in 1871
    • the different ways of viewing and presenting the birth of the German empire
    • Reichspatriotismus. Max Weber's German Weltpolitik
    • kleideutch - großdeutch: the latent initial stages of Pan - German expansion
  3. The Reich and "enemies of the Reich"
    • description of "enemies of the Reich" /Poles, Danes, Guelphs, Catholics etc./ and the "normal" German citizen / Protestant and Prussian/
    • the German 'Jewish Question"
  4. The meanings of the Kulturkampf
    • the aims of the "Mental revolution"
    • Kulturkampf and ethnic - religious minorities
    • wrong interpretations of Kulturkampf /measures against Catholic Church/
    • Kulturkampf against the Catholic Zentrum party as well as Social Democrats
  5. A specific aspects of Kulturkampf in East Prusssia
  6. The School Inspection Bill /1872/ and the problem of cultural identity of Lithuanian and Polish minorities
    • Kulturkampf and Catholics in East Prussia
    • Other aspects of Pan-germanistic politics in East Prussia
      • the army as an instrument of national leveling
      • the influence of official press on identity
      • the Protestant and Catholic Churches in relation to Lithuanian and Mazovian identity
    • Character of Lithuanian national movement at the end of XIXth century
      • German state politics (social - economical, educational etc.) and the problem of the Lithuanian elite
      • the reasons for the non-political character of the Lithuanian national movement
      • the influence of the Polish national movement on the Lithuanians in East Prussia
    • The priority of cultural aims in the Lithuanian national movement in East Prussia
      • establishment of a number of cultural organizations
      • the role of religious books and periodical press in the process of identity formation
      • elections as a way of strengthening the national consciousness
    • The crisis of Reich and national question
      • loosing the theritories in 1919
      • the Memel question
    • The destiny of German Reich Lithuanians after fall of Reich
      • involving some of the "Reich Lithuanians" in the Lithuanian state /after 1923/
      • the status of the "undesirable third group" (Memellandern)


Carsten Francis Ludwig. A History of the Prussian Junkers. London. 1989.
Gall Lothar. Bismarck the White Revoliutionary. Vol. 2 1871 - 1892. London. 1986.
Geis Imanuel. On the Question of German Unification 1806 - 1996. London.. 1997.
Haffner S. The Rise and Fall of Prussia. London. 1980.
Martel Gordon. Modern Germany Reconcidered 1870 -1945. London. 1992.

Jasinski Janusz. Historia Krolewca. Olsztyn. 1994.
Jasinski Grzegorz. Mazury w drugej polowie XIX wieku. Olsztyn. 1994.
Salmonowicz Stanislaw. Prusy. Dzieje Panstwa I Spoloczenstwa. Warsawa. 1998.
Salmonowicz Stanislaw. Od Prus Ksiàþæcych do Krolewstwa Pruskiego. Olsztyn.. 1994.
Wrzesinski Wojciech. Prusy Wshodnie w Polskiej Mysli Politycznej 1864-1945. Olsztyn. 1994.
Busch Otto, Neugebauer Wolfgang. Moderne Preußische Geschichte 1648 - 1947. Band 3. Berlin. New Yourk.. 1981.
Salmonowicz Stanislaw. Preußen geschichte von Staat und Gesellschaft. Herne. 1995.
Schumacher Bruno. Geschichte Ost- und West-preußens. Augsburg. 1993.

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