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   Course Title    Reading Woman: An Introduction to Gender Studies
Lecturer    Séllei Nóra
Institution    Kossuth Lajos University Debrecen
Country    Hungary


I. AIM OF THE COURSE

"Re-vision—the act of looking back, of seeing with fresh eyes, of entering an old text from a new critical direction—is for women more than a chapter in cultural history: it is an act of survival. Until we can understand the assumptions in which we are drenched we cannot know ourselves. And this drive to self-knowledge, for women, is more than a search for identity: it is part of our refusal of the self-destructiveness of male-dominated society. A radical critique of literature, feminist in its impulse, would take the work first of all as a clue to how we live, how we have been living, how we have been led to imagine ourselves, how our language has trapped as well as liberated us, how the very act of naming has been till now a male prerogative, and how we can begin to see and name—and therefore live—afresh".

(Adrienne Rich, "When We Dead Awaken")

Inspired by the quote above, the course will be a basically theoretical introduction to "reading woman", i.e. an exploration of how women and men: femaleness and maleness, femininity and masculinity, and feminism are constructed and read by diverse discourses such as history, sociology, psychoanalysis, linguistics and literature. The aim of the course is to:

  • create an awareness of the extent to which the notion of gender permeates our culture;

  • raise consciousness that gender is not a "natural" phenomenon;

  • develop a critical attitude to gender biased discourses;

  • introduce a theoretical framework for gender studies;

  • provide key notions that are prerequisites for discussing gender;

  • develop analytical skills which enable participants to do research in the field of gender studies;

  • invite participants to reconsider phenomena they have so far regarded as gender-neutral.

II. ROLE OF THE COURSE IN THE OVERALL DEGREE CURRICULUM

The course is offered to English major students by the Department of British Studies in the Institute of English and American Studies, University of Debrecen, Hungary. The language of teaching (and reading) is English. Within the Institute, after the first two years of study, when they do their "foundation courses", students can choose one of four "tracks" (specialisations): British Studies, American Studies, Linguistics, and Applied Linguistics. As this course is offered within the British Studies track, it is one of the required optional courses for British track students within the pool "Cultural Studies" (of which they have to complete two in their 3rd and 4th years), and an optional course for students from the other three tracks.

This two-term course is particularly recommended as a gender-studies foundation course for third- and fourth-year students who either intend to take (or have taken) "literature and gender studies" courses, and/or who are interested in the issues raised by feminism.

III. METHODS USED

The course will take a seminar format, which defines its basic methodology:

  1. Seminars will be based on the assigned readings (either theoretical or literary, or both);

  2. Students will be expected to keep a reader’s journal, which must be in class, and the students’ remarks and ideas in the journal will supposedly facilitate discussions;

  3. Seminars will be primarily devoted to the discussion of the assigned readings, monitored by the tutor;

  4. Discussions will take various forms such as all-class discussions, group work and pair work—the latter two can particularly develop and articulate critical ideas;

  5. Students will make presentations of their own: their task will be not only to present the main ideas of a theoretical article but also to evaluate it from a critical stance; in addition, the standard of presentation performance will be an aspect of the course. As an option, for some classes they can propose presentation topics (which, however, need tutorial confirmation);

  6. Tutorial consultation will be available for the students all through the course, and at any stage in the process of their essay-writing.

Requirements

Reader’s journal: the student is expected to keep a reader’s journal in a separate notebook, recording opinions, impressions, and raising questions. The journals are to be in class, and to be used for facilitating discussions.

Participation in classroom discussion: the student is expected to take an active part in classroom discussions. This activity contributes to the seminar grade. (The reader’s journal can be of great help in this respect.)

Required criticism: a ten to fifteen minutes’ student’s presentation on the most important ideas and points of an essay chosen by the student is to be given. Each student is expected to have either an individual or joint presentation during the term. The presentation is an integral part of the course assignment, and will be duly assessed. Apart from this, the essays of criticism are highly recommended to read for everybody as the main points must be remembered and will be tested on in the final test.

Endterm test: an objective and creative test on what is covered during the term.

Term essay: the student is expected to write a take-home essay of about 2500 to 3000 words, related to the course in its approach and thematic concerns. The essay is to be submitted by the defined deadline, otherwise the grade will be lowered. The essay must be written in the form of a research paper. Secondary reading and scholarly documentation, conforming to the requirements of the MLA Style Sheet, are required. Plagiarism and academic dishonesty will result in a failure as described in the Academic Handbook of the Institute. The essay will only be accepted in a worprocessed (typed) format.

IV. COURSE CONTENT

TERM I.

Week

Topic

1

An introduction to the course: Basic terms and issues – or why is feminism frowned upon in Hungary?

This class will be devoted to the introduction of the basic terms and issues in the realm of gender studies. To familiarise students with this area of studies, the unit will highly rely on the Hungarian context, since the most efficient approach in creating an awareness of the existence of "gender trouble" seems to correspond to one of the slogans of feminism: "the personal is political". The discussion will be facilitated by reading a

text: Adrienne Rich, "When We Dead Awaken".

2

What do women want?

The central question, based on two mandatory texts, will be whether and how the theory and practical aims of women’s and gender studies change, and how theory and practice become undividable in the current issues.

Texts: Simone de Beauvoir, "Introduction".

Julia Kristeva, "Women’s Time".

3

Images of women I: Greek mythology

The class will be devoted to the exploration of how Greek goddesses encode various patterns of feminine behaviour, and intends to reveal that the Jungian "archetypes" can, actually, be read as social constructions.

In terms of methods, this class will rely on students presentations: partly based on Bolen’s chapters, partly on individual research, seven Greek goddesses will be presented from the point of view of gender construction.

4

Images of women II: The Bible and Christianity

Christianity, a central discursive system in Western cultures, has provided us with two, and antagonistic feminine models: Eve and Virgin Mary. The focus of exploration will be what attributes they have got, how they have become mythologised, and how they have contributed to an unbalanced evaluation of the two genders. By way of preparation, students should form groups of threes or fours, and present their analysis of a representation of either Eve of the Virgin Mary.

For presentation: Mieke Bal,"Sexuality, Sin and Sorrow: The Emergence of Female Character (A Reading of Genesis 1–3)".

Julia Kristeva, "Stabat Mater".

5

Images of women III: Fairy Tales

In Bruno Bettelheim’s view, fairy tales function to create homeliness, and to accommodate the child to their social environment. Jung, on the other hand, considers fairy tales to be a revelation of the collective unconscious, which would mean that these "stories" are unchangeable. Feminist theorists, however, argue, that fairy tales are social constructs, and they function not so much to create "homeliness" but rather disguise violence, sexuality, rape, and incests, a meaning brought to the surface by Angela Carter’s subversive rewritings of fairy tales.

Text: Angela Carter, "The Company of Wolves".

For presentation: John Haffenden, "Angela Carter".

6

Women’s Time I: Sexual Politics

The section title, taken from Kristeva, recalls the three phases of women’s time in her concept, the first of which is "egalitarian feminism", a wish to be accepted by and integrated into the dominant culture. It is also characterised as a phase of critique, a major representative of which is Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics.

Text: Kate Millett, "Instances of Sexual Politics".

For presentation: Kate Millett, "Theory of Sexual Politics".

7

Women’s Time II: "French" feminism

Often referred to as the "celebration of femininity", "French" feminist theory as represented by Cixous and Irigaray, can be considered as a second stage in the history of feminism. The class will explore the theoretical suppositions behind their ideas, and the possible consequences upon feminist practice, including the question of essentialism.

Texts: Hélene Cixous, "The Laugh of the Medusa".

Ann Rosalind Jones, "Writing the Body: Toward an Understanding of l"Écriture féminine".

8

Women’s Time III: Deconstructive feminism/Postfeminisms

In Kristeva’s classification, deconstructive feminism constitutes the third phase in the histroy of feminism, but at the same time can be read as a radically new phase inasmuch as it signals the beginning of gender studies. By introducing the notion of gender as performance, the authentic human subject and sexual "identity" become destabilised, and are replaced by performative acts.

Text: Ann Brooks, "Introduction".

For presentation: Judith Butler, "Subjects of Sex/Gender/Desire".

Catherine Belsey, "Constructing the Subject, Deconstructing the Text".

9

Psychoanalysis I: Freud and Feminine Sexuality

This class aims to analyse and point out the hypotheses and preconceptions that underlie Freud’s theory of femininity and female sexuality: how all the hiearchical binary oppositions inform his theories, and how a masculine-biassed teleology shapes his conclusions.

Text: Sigmund Freud, "On Femininity".

For presentation:

Betty Friedan, "The Sexual Solipsism of Sigmund Freud".

Juliet Mitchell, "Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the Ecole Freudienne".

Jacqueline Rose, "Femininity and its Discontents".

10

Psychoanalysis II: Dora’s Case — Hysteria

The class will be devoted to the analysis and close reading of, perhaps, Freud’s most famous case history of a woman patient, "Dora". Supported by insights gained from scholarly close readings of the text (Steven Marcus and Toril Moi), the working of such central concepts of psychoanalysis as hysteria and transference will be examined.

Text: Sigmund Freud, "Dora".

For presentation: Steven Marcus, "Story, History, Case History".

Toril Moi, "Representation of Patriarchy: Sexuality and Epistemology in Freud’s Dora".

11

Psychoanalysis III: A Feminist Revision: Nancy Chodorow

Combining the insights of both psychoanalysis and sociology, Nancy Chodorow’s theory has the liberating effect of, on the one hand, subverting Freud’s biologism, on the other hand the determinism imlpicit in Freud’s "family romance" that relegates both men and women into predetermined subject positions. The presentations will demonstrate how further theoretical areas (such as the exploration of power and ethics), based on Chodorow’s concepts, can be revised and critiqued.

Texts: Nancy Chodorow, "The Sexual Sociology of Adult Life", "The Psychodynamics of the Family" and "Afterword".

For presentation: Jessica Benjamin, "Gender and Domination".

Carol Gilligan, "Introduction".

12

ESSAY DEADLINE

Film: A Company of Wolves (Neil Jordan)

13

End-term test

14

Evaluation of the term

 

TERM II.

Week

Topic

1

An introduction to the course: further areas of study

The class will be both a practical and theoretical introduction to the second term: apart from organising the term, a brief revision of the areas of study in the previous term, and a foreshadowing of the new areas to be explored will take place.

2

Language, gender and woman’s place

This class raises the most basic questions concerning gender and language use by relying on the students’ knowledge of both the Hungarian and the English language, and will concentrate on two levels of gendered language use: on vocabulary, and on the different communication models men and women tend to adopt. The issues addressed will range from the question of silencing women and the taboo on public speech to the exploration of speech patterns that men and women tend to use in everyday communication.

Texts: Cora Kaplan, "Language and Gender".

Robin Lakoff, "Extract from Language and Woman’s Place".

For presentation: Dale Spender, "Extracts from Man Made Language".

Maria Black & Rosalind Coward, "Linguistic, Social and Sexual Relations: a Review of Dale Spender’s Man Made Language".

Pamela Fishman, "Conversational Insecurity".

Deborah Jones, "Gossip: Notes on Women’s Oral Culture".

3

Gender-conscious language use

After the previous class that can be regarded rather as diagnostic, this unit aims at developing a language use that may help in creating not only a more PC use of vocabulary but also communicative patterns which, in turn, may contribute to a language that is less discriminative and derogatory in regard to what is considered feminine.

Text: Deborah Cameron, "The Debate on Sexist Language".

For presentation: Deborah Cameron, "Feminist Models of Language II: Semiology, Postmodernism and the Debate on the Gendered Subject".

4

Gender matters from school…

Considering schooling both in the widest (= education, socialisation) and narrow sense of the word, the class aims at exposing the gender biases of our educational ideas both at institutions and in the family. A special emphasis will be placed on how gender works in the English language classroom—with great reliance on the students’ learning and teaching experiences.

Text: Jane Gaskell, "Course Streaming at School".

Jane Sunderland, Gender in the EFL Classroom .

5

… to work

The class aims to explore the visible and latent gender discrimination at work, at designing one’s career, at career options, and also how work hierarchy reproduces the structure of the patriarchal family model. This issue is of particular relevance, as in Hungary there persists the fallacy of socialism concerning the non-discrimination of genders at work.

Texts: Jane Gaskell, "Reproducing Family Patterns".

Naomi Wolf, "Work".

6

The female body in Western culture

The class will explore three interrelated areas: the current images of feminine "beauty", anorexia nervosa, and bulimia. Apparently, "beauty" signifies health, but students will gain an insight how the construction of feminine beauty can lead into its opposite: into the denial of the body, often surfacing in anorexia and bulimia.

Text: Noel Caskey, "Interpreting Anorexia Nervosa".

Naomi Wolf, "Beyond the Beauty Myth".

For presentation: individual analyses of current images of feminine "beauty" in women’s magazines, advertisements, etc. (Ideas for analyses must be reported to the tutor at least a week before the class.)

7

Feminist literary criticism I: women and literary history

The class will explore the emergence of women’s literature in terms of literary history, including an expolaration of the issue of gender and genre: how, when, and in what genres women entered a public realm of literature, so long forbidden for them, and how this process is related to the rise and aesthetics of the novel.

Text: Tillie Olsen, "One Out of Twelve".

Josephine Donovan, "The Silence is Broken".

8

Feminist literary criticism II: women writers, reception and the canon

The basic aim of this class is to confront students with the possibilities of feminist literary criticism by exposing them to texts that raise the following issues: canon formation and gender, and the different branches of feminist literary theory. In this unit students will be invited to comment upon, and discuss with their peers, the issues raised in the articles. As these articles may be of controversial nature, the tasks will facilitate the development of each participant’s individual position in the area of feminist literary theory.

Text: Elaine Showalter, "Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness".

For presentation: Sandra M. Gilbert, "What Do Feminist Critics Want? A Postcard From the Volcano".

Annette Kolodny, "A Map for Rereading: Gender and the Interpretation of Literary Texts".

Lillian S. Robinson, "Treason Our Text: Feminist Challenges to the Literary Canon".

9

Women and poetry I: Woman’s place in the male tradition

Poetry, the most distinguished genre of literature, has been an area which, historically, women took a longer time to get access to. The reasons for this, as the article will shed light, range from the more privileged psychoanalytic position of the masculine subject in language to the hierarchy of genres, which, in turn, seems to reflect gender hierarchy. Exposed to both secondary reading and poetry by male poets from the 19th and 20th centuries, students will be asked to analyse how gender is inscribed in the imagery, metaphors, and language of the poems.

Text: John Keats, "La Belle Dame Sans Merci".

T. S. Eliot, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock".

For presentation: Margaret Homans, "The Masculine Tradition".

10

Women and poetry II: The possibility of a feminine tradition

This class aims to explore how two 19th-century women poets have responded to the masculine tradition of literature, and how they have formed a tradition that partly relies on, partly rewrites the masculine tradition, and thus creates a subversive literary space.

Text: Christina Rossetti, "Selected poems".

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, "Selected poems".

For presentation: Margaret Homans, "A Feminine Tradition".

11

The novel and the female Gothic

This class will concentrate on one genre, the Gothic. The explanation for this prominent and exclusive focus is that this genre has been reclaimed by feminist literary critics as a mode of narration that used to be discredited but has the power to subvert patriarchal discourses in literary texts. Students will be familiarised with two theories that relate to the potential power of the Gothic. In reading Doris Lessing’s The Fifth Child, students will be requested to apply their newly acquired theoretical knowledge to a literary text.

Text: Doris Lessing, The Fifth Child.

For presentation: Ellen Moers, "Female Gothic".

Tania Modleski, "The Female Uncanny: Gothic Romances for Women".

12

ESSAY DEADLINE

Film: Leave All Fair

13

End-term test

14

Evaluation of the term

 

AVAILABILITY OF TEXTS

three readers compiled by the course tutor, and a novelette

Literary texts:

Reading Woman

Doris Lessing, The Fifth Child

Mandatory reading, and reading recommended for presentation:

Readings in Feminist Theory I–II.

GRADING POLICY

classroom discussion

15%

presentation

15%

objective test

30%

term essay

40%

total

100%

 

GRADES

87-100%

5

75-86%

4

63-74%

3

51-62%

2

0-50 %

1

 

V. READINGS

MANDATORY READING

1. THEORY (all: in the reader)

Brooks, Ann. "Introduction". Postfeminisms: Feminism, Cultural Theory and Cultural Forms. London: Routledge, 1997.

Cameron, Deborah. "The Debate on Sexist Language". Feminism and Linguistic Theory. London: Macmillan, 1994.

Caskey, Noel. "Interpreting Anorexia Nervosa". Susan Robin Suleiman, ed. The Female Body in Western Culture: Contemporary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP., 1985.

Chodorow, Nancy. "The Sexual Sociology of Adult Life", "The Psychodynamics of the Family", and "Afterword". The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

Cixous, Hélene. "The Laugh of the Medusa". Marks, Elaine & Isabelle de Courtivron, eds. New French Feminisms: An Anthology. Amhurst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980.

De Beauvoir, Simone. "Introduction". The Second Sex. Transl. H. M. Parshley. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983.

Donovan, Josephine. "The Silence is Broken". Deborah Cameron, ed. The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader. London: Routledge, 1990.

Freud, Sigmund. "Dora". Case Histories I (‘Dora’ and ‘Little Hans’). Trans. Alix & James Strachey. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977.

—. "On Femininity". 2. New Introductory Lectures. Trans. Alix & James Strachey. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976.

Gaskell, Jane. "Course Streaming at School". Gender Matters from School to Work. Ontario: OISE Press, 1992.

—. "Reproducing Family Patterns". Gender Matters from School to Work. Ontario: OISE Press, 1992.

Jones, Ann Rosalind. "Writing the Body: Toward an Understanding of l"Écriture féminine". Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory. London: Virago, 1986.

Kaplan, Cora. "Language and Gender". Deborah Cameron, ed. The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader. London: Routledge, 1990.

Kristeva, Julia. "Women’s Time". Toril Moi, ed. The Kristeva Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Lakoff, Robin. "Extract from Language and Woman’s Place". Deborah Cameron, ed. The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader. London: Routledge, 1990.

Millett, Kate. "Instances of Sexual Politics". Sexual Politics. London: Virago, 1977.

Olsen, Tillie. "One Out of Twelve". Silences. New York: Delacorte Press/Seymour Lawrence, 1978.

Rich, Adrienne. "When We Dead Awaken". Gilbert, Sandra M. & Susan Gubar, eds. The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women. New York: Norton, 1985.

Showalter, Elaine. "Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness". The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory. London: Virago, 1986.

Sunderland, Jane. Gender in the EFL Classroom . Hedge & Whitney, eds. Power, Pedagogy, and Practice. Oxford: OUP, 1996.

Wolf, Naomi. "Work". The Beauty Myth. London: Vintage, 1990.

—. "Beyond the Beauty Myth". The Beauty Myth. London: Vintage, 1990.

2. LITERATURE

Barrett Browning, Elizabeth. "Selected poems" (in the reader—from Gilbert, Sandra M. & Susan Gubar, eds. The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women. New York: Norton, 1985.).

Carter, Angela. "The Company of Wolves" (in the reader).

Eliot, T. S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock". (in the reader).

Keats, John. "La Belle Dame Sans Merci". (in the reader—from Gilbert, Sandra M. & Susan Gubar, eds. The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women. New York: Norton, 1985.).

Lessing, Doris. The Fifth Child. London: HarperCollins, 1988.

Rossetti, Christina. "Selected poems" (in the reader—from Gilbert, Sandra M. & Susan Gubar, eds. The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women. New York: Norton, 1985.).

 

RECOMMENDED READING

1. FOR PRESENTATION (all: in the reader):

Bal, Mieke. "Sexuality, Sin and Sorrow: The Emergence of Female Character (A Reading of Genesis 1–3)". Susan Rubin Suleiman, ed. The Female Body in Western Culture: Contemporary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP., 1985.

Belsey, Catherine. "Constructing the Subject, Deconstructing the Text". Teresa de Lauretis, ed. Feminist Studies/Critical Studies. Vol. 8 in the Theories of Contemporary Culture Series. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Benjamin, Jessica. "Gender and Domination". The Bonds of Love: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, and the Problem of Domination. New York: Pantheon Books, 1988.

Black, Maria & Rosalind Coward. "Linguistic, Social and Sexual Relations: a Review of Dale Spender’s Man Made Language". Deborah Cameron, ed. The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader. London: Routledge, 1990.

Bolen, Shinoda. Goddesses in Everywoman. New York: Harper & Row, 1984.

Butler, Judith. "Subjects of Sex/Gender/Desire". Gender Trouble. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York & London: Routledge, 1990.

Cameron, Deborah. "Feminist Models of Language II: Semiology, Postmodernism and the Debate on the Gendered Subject". Feminism and Linguistic Theory. London: Macmillan, 1994.

Fishman, Pamela. "Conversational Insecurity". Deborah Cameron, ed. The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader. London: Routledge, 1990.

Friedan, Betty. "The Sexual Solipsism of Sigmund Freud". The Feminine Mystique. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979.

Gilbert, Sandra M. "What Do Feminist Critics Want? A Postcard From the Volcano". Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory. London: Virago, 1986.

Gilligan, Carol. "Introduction". In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1982.

Haffenden, John. "Angela Carter". Novelists in Interview. London: Methuen, 1985.

Homans, Margaret. "A Feminine Tradition". Women Writers and Poetic Identity. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1980.

—. "The Masculine Tradition". Women Writers and Poetic Identity. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1980.

Jones, Deborah. "Gossip: Notes on Women’s Oral Culture". Deborah Cameron, ed. The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader. London: Routledge, 1990.

Kolodny, Annette. "A Map for Rereading: Gender and the Interpretation of Literary Texts". Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory. London: Virago, 1986.

Kristeva, Julia. "Stabat Mater". Toril Moi, ed. The Kristeva Reader. New York: Columbia UP, 1986.

Marcus, Steven. "Story, History, Case History". Charles Bernheimer & Claire Kahane, eds. In Dora’s Case. Freud, Hysteria, Feminism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Millett, Kate. "Theory of Sexual Politics". Sexual Politics. London: Virago, 1977.

Mitchell, Juliet. "Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the Ecole Freudienne". Terry Lovell. British Feminist Thought. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.

Modleski, Tania. "The Female Uncanny: Gothic Romances for Women". Loving with a Vengeance: Mass-Produced Fantasies for Women. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Moers, Ellen. "Female Gothic". Literary Women. London: Women’s Press, 1978.

Moi, Toril. "Representation of Patriarchy: Sexuality and Epistemology in Freud’s Dora". Charles Bernheimer & Claire Kahane, eds. In Dora’s Case. Freud, Hysteria, Feminism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Robinson, Lillian S. "Treason Our Text: Feminist Challenges to the Literary Canon". Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory. London: Virago, 1986.

Rose, Jacqueline. "Femininity and its Discontents". Terry Lovell. British Feminist Thought. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.

Spender, Dale. "Extracts from Man Made Language". Deborah Cameron, ed. The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader. London: Routledge, 1990.

2. FURTHER RECOMMENDED READING

Benjamin, Jessica. The Bonds of Love: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, and the Problem of Domination. New York: Pantheon Books, 1988.

Bernheimer, Charles & Claire Kahane, eds. In Dora’s Case. Freud, Hysteria, Feminism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Bolen, Shinoda. Goddesses in Everywoman. New York: Harper & Row, 1984.

Brooks, Ann. Postfeminisms: Feminism, Cultural Theory and Cultural Forms. London: Routledge, 1997.

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York & London: Routledge, 1990.

Cameron, Deborah. Feminism and Linguistic Theory. London: Macmillan, 1994.

—, ed. The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader. London: Routledge, 1990.

Chodorow, Nancy. The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. Transl. H. M. Parshley. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983.

De Lauretis, Teresa, ed. Feminist Studies/Critical Studies. Vol. 8 in the Theories of Contemporary Culture Series. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

. Technologies of Gender: Essays on Theory, Film and Fiction. London: Macmillan, 1987.

Freud, Sigmund. Case Histories I (‘Dora’ and ‘Little Hans’). Trans. Alix & James Strachey. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977.

—. 2. New Introductory Lectures. Trans. Alix & James Strachey. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976.

Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979.

Gaskell, Jane. Gender Matters from School to Work. Ontario: OISE Press, 1992.

Gilbert, Sandra M. & Susan Gubar, eds. The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women. New York: Norton, 1985.

Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1982.

Haffenden, John. Novelists in Interview. London: Methuen, 1985.

Hedge & Whitney, eds. Power, Pedagogy, and Practice. Oxford: OUP, 1996.

Homans, Margaret. Women Writers and Poetic Identity. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1980.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller, Sally Shuttleworth. Body/Politics. Women and the Discourses of Science. New York & London: Routledge, 1990.

Lovell. Terry. British Feminist Thought. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991

Marks, Elaine & de Courtivron, Isabelle, eds. New French Feminisms: An Anthology. Amhurst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980.

Miller, Nancy K. The Poetics of Gender. New York: U of Columbia P, 1986.

Millett, Kate. Sexual Politics. London: Virago, 1977.

Mills, Sara, Lynne Pearce, Sue Spanel, & Elaine Millard. Feminist Readings - Feminist Reading. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1989.

Modleski, Tania. Loving with a Vengeance: Mass-Produced Fantasies for Women. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Moers, Ellen. Literary Women. London: Women’s Press, 1978.

Moi, Toril. Sexual/Textual Politic: Feminist Literary Theory. London: Routledge, 1991.

—. Simone de Beauvoir. The Making of an Intellectual Woman. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.

—, ed. The Kristeva Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Olsen, Tillie. Silences. New York: Delacorte Press/Seymour Lawrence, 1978.

Sellers, Susan.The Helene Cixous Reader. London: Routledge, 1994.

Showalter, Elaine, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory. London: Virago, 1986.

Suleiman, Susan Robin, ed. The Female Body in Western Culture. The Female Body in Western Culture: Contemporary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP., 1985.

Todd, Janet. Feminist Literary History. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Vice, Sue. Psychoanalytic Criticism. A Reader. Cambridge: Polity & Blackwell s, 1996.

Warhol, Robyn R. & Diane Price Herndl. Feminisms. An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism.

Wolf, Naomi. The Beauty Myth. London: Vintage, 1990.

Wright, Elizabeth. Feminism and Psychoanalysis. A Critical Dictionary. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.





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