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   Course Title    Women on Margins in Europe: 16th-20th Centuries
Lecturer    Rima Praspaliauskiene
Institution    Vilnius University
Country    Lithuania


Aim of the course

The main goal of this course is to investigate women from a social historical point of view. The course will be based on British, French, German and Lithuanian historical examples. Chosen chronological boundaries show long term trends, interactions between economical, political development and women’s lives. The course is for MA students, Department of History, Vilnius Pedagogical University.

 

Teaching methods

Practical lectures, discussions, student presentations, workshops.

Students have to submit paper (min.10 p.p.) and give an oral presentation in class.

  1. Introductory lecture. The aim of this lecture is to describe the main goals and objectives of the course. At first glance, women are absent from our history (with a few exceptions) as independent actors. In historical records they are often related with poverty, crime, community. It means, that women had always been on the margins of history. What social roles did women have in past societies? Why do we meet women mostly in court records? Were they violent?
  2. Survey Articles. Women in History. Early Modern Europe by O. Hufton, The Modern Period by J. W. Scott, in: Past and Present, No.101, p.125-157.

    O. Hufton. The Prosper Before Her. A History of Women in Western Europe, Vol.1. 1500-1800, London, 1995, p.1-57.

    N. Z. Davis. Women on Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives, London, 1995

    M. L. Arnot, C. Usborne. Why gender and crime? Aspects of an international debate, in: Gender and Crime in Modern Europe, London, 1999, p.1-43.

  3. Witchcraft. ( lecture and seminar). Gender roles were constructed from religious and social orders. Beliefs constructed dangerous women’s images - witches. Witch-craze in the 15th-16th centuries was also influenced by social factors. Women who were old, poor and living on their own, seemed dangerous and were prosecuted as witches. Does this relate to special women’s relationship to magic or more to efforts to live outside patriarchal control?
  4. B. P. Levack. The Witch-Hunt in Early Modern Europe, London, 1996, p.1-21, 125-152, 214-222.

    J. Jurginis. Raganu gaudymo simtmetis Lietuvoje, Vilnius, 1984, p.5-65.

    Raganu teismai Lietuvoje, Vilnius, 1967.

    O. Hufton. The Prosper Before Her. A History of Women in Western Europe, Vol.1. 1500-1800, London, 1995, p.332-358.

  5. Became a criminal - women as part of criminal underworld. In many cases for a woman to change her life meant to became a criminal. Often in catholic society, where divorce was impossible, women chose criminal ways to escape from their family, husband. Those were homicide, arson or poaching. We can find in historical records women as robbers or in thieves bands. Those women were outcasts in their communities. As "fallen", these women have to resign from their communities.
  6. D. Marcinkeviciene. Vedusiuju visuomene. Santuoka ir skyrybos XIX amziaus Lietuvoje, Vilnius, 1999, p. 152-159.

    R. Praspaliauskiene. Plesiku gaujos XVIII a.pab.-XIX a. pirmojoje puseje, Metmenys, 1999, p.85-124.

    L. MacKay. Why They Stole: Women in the Old Bailey, 1779-1789, Journal of Social History, 1999 spring, p.623-639.

    L. Stone. Interpersonal Violence in English Society 1300-1980, Past and Present, 101, p.22-33.

    R. Schulte. The Village in Court 1848-1910, Cambridge, 1994, p.25-54.

  7. Infanticide – crime of shame and fear. Infanticide became frequent in the 16th century. Was it the impact of Reformation? Were women violent? Usually unmarried women were charged; it was associated with sexual relations between unmarried people. Infanticide was the most frequent type of homicide in many societies in the 18th century. For a woman it was a possibility to keep her honor and future in society.
  8. O. Hufton. The Prosper Before Her. A History of Women in Western Europe, Vol.1. 1500-1800, London, 1995, p.251-298.

    R. Schulte. The Village in Court 1848-1910, Cambridge, 1994, p.83-111.

    J. Schellekers. Illegitimate Fertility Decline in England, Journal of Family History, 1995, Vol.20, No.4, p.

    G. Czarnowski. Women’s Crimes, State Crimes: Abortion in Nazi Germany, Gender and Crime in Modern Europe, London, 1999, p.p.238-257.

  9. Prostitution. Attitudes toward sexuality and morality in societies. Image of the "fallen" woman and crisis of the family. Prostitution as one of the main social problems. Distribution of pornography and sexual exploitation of women.
  10. R. Praspaliauskiene, D. Marcinkeviciene. Prostitucija ir venerine ligos XIX amziaus Lietuvoje, Sargyba, 1999, Nr.358, p.9-11.

    L. Mahood. The Magdalenes: Prostitution in the Nineteenth century, London, 1990, p.1-15, 40-49, 155-165.

    J. R. Walowitz. Prostitution and Victorian Society, Cambridge, 1980, p. 1-36.

    B. Taithe. Consuming desires: prostitutes and "customers" at the margins of crime and perversion in France and Britain, 1836-85, Gender and Crime in Modern Europe, London, 1999, p.151-188.

    V.Sirutavicius. Nusikaltimas ir visuomene XIX amziaus Lietuvoje, Vilnius, 1996, p.130-152.

  11. Living without a man – widows, spinsters and single mothers. What possibilities were there to live without family? Attitudes toward an "independent" woman. Such an opportunity relates to the right to control pregnancy.
  12. O. Hufton. The Prosper Before Her. A History of Women in Western Europe, Vol.1. 1500-1800, London, 1995, p.217-250.

    D. Marcinkeviciene. Vedusiuju visuomene. Santuoka ir skyrybos XIX amziaus Lietuvoje, Vilnius, 1999, p. 49-61.

    D. Marcinkeviciene. Vieniso zmogaus samprata XIX a. Lietuvoje, Liaudies Kultura, 1998, p.21-29.

  13. Gender and poverty. Begging women, work houses, asylums for women. Stories of women beggars are rather similar. Women became poor more often than men. In other cases women were active in charity work.

R. Praspaliauskiene. Elgetos XVIII a. pab. – XIX a. pirmojoje puseje, Lietuvos Istorijos Metrastis, 1996, p. 54-79.

R. Praspaliauskiene. Moterys- labdaros organizatores, Aljansas, 1992, p.37-45.

O. Hufton. The Poor of Eighteenth Century France-1789, Oxford, 1974, p.

A. Lindenmeyer. Poverty Is Not a Vice. Charity, Society, and the State in Imperial Russia, Princeton, 1996, p. 22-47, 101-141.

B. S. Anderson, J.P.Zinsser. A History of Their Own. Penguin, 1990, p. 167-196.





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