|Course Title||The Evolution of Familial Relations in Europe: XVIIth - The Beginning of XXth|
The main aim of this course is to analyse the evolution of relationship within families in Europe from the XVIIth to the beginning of XXth centuries. During the lectures these problems will be discussed: separation and divorce in protestant and catholic countries, the models of wedding, childhood in preindustrial Europe, marginal behaviour (domestic violence, illegal love, children abandonment, singles) and Church policy towards family. The round of questions gives the possibility to compare different familial experience in protestant and catholic communities and emphasize different familial norms in East and West Europe. The examples about Lithuanian family are basically based on archival materials.
The course includes these lectures:
In the early modern- and modern centuries ideas about childhood and child-rearing were likely to have their origin in two sources: the classical inheritance and Christianity. The actual practice of childrearing was likely to be influenced by the way children had been reared in medieval society.
Lit.:Stone L., Parent-Child relations, in Marriage, sex and family in England, Oxford, 1972, p.254-298; Huwton O., Parent and child, in The poor of eighteenth - century France, 1750-1789, p.329-349, Oxford, 1974; Krausman Ben-Amos I., Adolescence and youth in early modern England, in Adolescence and youth in early modern England, p.191-200, Yale University Press-London, 1994; Ph.Aričs istoriografines nuostatos kritika: Krausman Ben-Amos I. Introduction, in Adolescence and youth in early modern England, p.1-9; Ž.B.Šaknys, Jaunimo brandos apeigos Lietuvoje, Vilnius, 1996, 209 p.
Smout Ch., Aspects of sexual behaviour in nineteenth-century Scotland, in Laslett P. (ed.) Bastardy and its comparative history, p.192-216, Harvard University Press, 1980; Mitchison R., Leneman L., Sexuality and Social Control: Scotland 1666-1780, Oxford, 1989; Marcinkeviciene.D. Netipines šeimos XIX-XX a.pr. Lietuvoje , in Darbai ir Dienos, 1995, Nr..1, p.59-67.
John R.Gillis, For better, for worse: British marriages, 1600 to the present, New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1985, p. 55 – 84, 231 – 259; Lawrence Stone, Family and fortune: studies in aristocratic finance in the XVI th and XVII th centuries, Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1973, p. 152 – 160; David Grant, Family planning and the preindustrial society: some Swedish evidence, in Studia Historica Upsaliensia XLVII, Scandinavian Unoversity Press, 1973, p. 28 – 37; Linda Pollock, ‘An action like a stratagem’, courtiship and marriage from the middle ages to the twentieth century, in The Historical Journal, 1987, vol. 30, Nr. 2, p. 483 – 498.
In the eighteenth- and early twentieth centuries, Lithuanians were not free to choose to live unmarried, if they wanted also to be valued as integral and active participants in society. A family, which was seen first and foremost as an economic arrangement and not a union of two emotionally intimate people, was obligatory for everyone. At that time in Western Europe 15 to 20 percent of women never wed, while in the Baltic states this was true of only about three percent.
The curch canon law restricted the personal lives of Catholics and simultaneously forced people to find other, more radical, methods for settling marriage disputes; such as running away, cruel conduct or killing one's spouse. So I will speak about the ways, which for XVII - XIXth century people often meant divorce and personal freedom.
Lit.: Shani D˘ Cruze, Crimes of outrage, Sex, violance and Victorian working women,Manchester Metropoliten University, UCL Press, 1998, p. 66 – 75; A.James Hammerton,Cruelty and companionship: conflict in nineteenth-century married life, London and New York, Routledge, p. 10 – 37; Carolyn A.Conley,No pedestals: women and violance in late nineteenth-century Ireland, in Journal of social history, 1995, vol. 28, Nr. 4, p. 801 – 817; Roderick Phillips,Putting assunder: a history of divorce in Western society, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1988, p. 323 – 344.
In the XVIIIth and early XXth centuries, establishing an illegitimate family was not at all a rare phenomenon. From the examples it is seen that illegal families not always meant immorality even in a catholic country. On the contrary, in most cases, an illegal family was a sign of a more modern, independent life style.
Lit.: Joana Shellekens, Illegitimate fertility decline in England, 1851- 1911, in Journal of Family History, vol. 20, Nr. 4, p. 365 – 377; Ferenc Ájus, István Henye, Illegitimacy in Hungary 1880 – 1910, in Journal of Family History, 1994, vol. 19, Nr. 4, p. 369 – 388; David L.Ransel, Mothers of misery: child abandonment in Russia, 1988, Princeton University Press, p.8 – 30.
It is often assumed that the institution of the family and all that implied in terms of patriarchal power, settlement patterns, and inheritance customs restricted women within communities. In this lecture women’s possibilities to live alone in preindustrial Europe will be explored.
Lit.: Adams Christine, A choise not to wed? Unmarried women in eighteenth century France, in Journal of social history, 1996, vol. 29., Nr. 4., P. 883 – 894; Cashamere John, Sisters together: women without men in seventeenth-century French village culture, in Journal of family history, vol. 21, No. 1, 1996, p. 44-62; Anne E.C. McCants, The not-so-merry widows of Amsterdam, 1740 - 1782, in Journal of family history, 1999, vol. 24, Nr. 4, p. 441- 667; Olwen Hufton, The prospect before her: A history of women in Western Europe, 1500 - 1800, 1998, New York, Vintage Books, p. 220 - 254.