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   Course Title    Gender Dimension of Employment and Labour Market
Lecturer    Larissa V. Kossyguina
Institution    Novosibirsk State Academy of Economics and Managment
Country    Russia


Syllabus of the Course

The aim of the course Gender Dimension of Employment and Labour Market is to illuminate and analyse how gender is embodied in labour market and work place. The course is focused on the situation in Russia.

The structure of the course

There are four parts in the course.

The first part "Theoretical Approaches to Gender, Labour Market and Employment" introduces theoretical concepts of Gender as well as theories of labour market and employment and feminist critic of these theories.

The second part "Gender Dimension of Employment" deals with the influence and manifestation of gender in the sphere of formal employment. Gender dimension of labour division, choice of profession, career patterns, wages and earning gap, pension systems, entrepreneurship, organisation, relations among people who work together are analysed there. The issue of sexuality at the work place is also presented in this part of the course.

The third part "Gender Dimension of Labour Market" focuses on gender aspects of unemployment (fair (reasons and consequences), job search and etc). This part also contains the gender expertise of state policy against unemployment.

The fourth part "Employment in Informal Economy: Gender Aspect" analyses the positions of men and women in the sphere of informal employment (informal economy): the labour division, work conditions, wages and etc. This part scrutinises household. It also introduces methodological approaches to the measurement of unpaid work.

Two discussions are held in the framework of the course. The first discussion "Women and Men in Russian Society" is at the middle of the course. It is about the documentary "Because of I am a Woman", devoted to the situation with the realisation of human rights in Russian society. The second discussion "Is Gender Equality Utopia or not" is at the end of the course.

Role of the course in the overall degree curriculum

Since 1999 department "Management in Social Sphere" develops a set of disciplines in the framework of theme "Social Inequalities". The course "Gender Dimension of Employment and Labour Market" is elaborated as a part of this set of disciplines.

Methods used

Lectures and discussions after them, watching documentary and discussion, writing essays discussion of the articles and books.

The evaluation of students

Attendance of the lectures, participation in the discussions, examination and essay.

 

Course Content

Part 1: Theoretical Approaches to Gender, Labour Market and Employment

Theme 1.1. Theories of Labour Market and Employment

Plurality of answers to the questions: What is "Work"? What is "Labour Market"? What is "Employment"? Sociologic and economic theories of labour market and employment.

Theme 1.2. Theories of Gender

What is gender? Gender and Sex: conceptions of Gender and Sex in Sociology (essentialist approaches, socialisation approaches, social constructionist approaches, structural approaches).

Theme 1.3. Labour Market and Employment in Feminist Perspective

Gender economy. Theoretical approaches to the labour market and employment (K. Marx, neo-classic theory, institutionalism) and feminist critic. Hartmann H.; Christine Delphy. Gender economy: recognition of gender. Gender in economy: the issue of social stratification.

 

Part 2 Gender Dimension of Employment

Theme 2.1. Gender Aspect in Labour Division

Professional segregation: situation in world (develop and developing countries). Analysis of professional segregation in the former USSR, present Russia and present Novosibirsk.

Theoretical explanations of professional segregation (essentialist theory, neo-classic economic theory, human capital theory, institutionalism) and feminist critic.

The division of labour in the periods of social conflicts (wars, revolutions): the examples of the USSR and the USA.

Globalisation and division of labour: the case study of Russia

Technical development and gender division of labour: situation in Russia and all over the world. New forms of work and employment.

The State Policy concerning the issue of professional segregation: the case studies of the USA and Russia (the USSR)

Theme 2.2. Gender and Choice of Profession

Theories which touch the issue of profession choice and forming of professional orientation. The gender and choice of profession: gender stereotypes and gender arrangements.

Theme 2.3 Professional Career in Gender Dimension

Women and men in management. Women and men in organisation: the distribution of power. Theoretical explanations of promotional gap between genders: human-capital theory, segregation and discrimination theories. Professional career and family. The career patterns of men. The career patters of women. Professional career of women in the USSR and Russia.

Theme 2.4. Wage: gender dimension

Earning gap in time and space perspective (the examples from history and from different countries). Analysis of Russian and foreign statistics and researchers, which devoted to the earning gap phenomena.

Theoretical approaches to the explanation of earning gap: human-capital theory, segregation and discrimination theories.

The State Policy and Earning Gap: the case studies of the USA and the USSR (Russia)

Documentary "Because of I am a Woman" (the right to work, right for safety, reproductive rights, the politic rights). Discussion.

Theme 2.5. Pension System in Gender Dimension

Gender and Pension Systems: the pension system of the USSR: the reason of the transformation. The pension system of the USSR: gender aspect. Gender aspects of new pension system.

Theme 2.6. Women and Entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurship as a self-employment. Analysis of Russian and foreign statistics concerning women in entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship practices of women and men. "Male" and "female" spheres of business. Woman in "male" business. Women-Entrepreneurs in Russia: the specific of Russian situation. Discrimination of women-entrepreneurs in Russia. The influence of State Policy on women in business: the case of the USA, Sweden and Russia.

Theme 2.7. Gender Construction of Working Place

The influence of gender on the formal level of organisation (written rules). The influence of gender on the informal level of organisation.

Gender aspect in employer actions (conscious and unconscious) for creating formal level of organisation – written rules of behaviour, cloths, functions, duties, rights, distribution of positions, regime of work.

Gender aspect in employer actions (conscious and unconscious) for creating the informal level of organisation. Gender dimension of employee actions for creating the informal level of organisation. Construction of Gender in female work collective, male work collective, mixed collective. Woman in male collective, man in female collective: the construction of gender relations.

The influence of gender on the relations between boss and subordinate.

Theme 2.8.Love Affairs at Work Place

Sexuality and work place. Evaluation of love affairs at work place from the point of view of organisation effectiveness.

What is sexual harassment? The reasons of sexual harassment. The role of management stuff in the creating the sexual harassment atmosphere in organisation. Sexual harassment at work place in Russia and in foreign countries. The influence of culture on perception of this or that action as sexual harassment. Struggle against sexual harassment: case study of the USA

 

Part 3 Gender Dimension of Labour Market

Theme 3.1. Labour Market and Unemployment: Gender Aspect

The definition of unemployment. Who is unemployed? The kinds of unemployment.

The influence of gender on fair practices, perception and experience of unemployment, searching of work, training, employment requirements. State Policy and unemployment. State Policy concerning women unemployment.

Theme 3.2. Male and Female Unemployment in Russia.

Statistics about unemployment. Specificity of unemployment in post-soviet countries. Specificity of unemployment in Russia. Russia: the influence of gender on fair practices, perception and experience of unemployment, searching of work, training, employment requirements. Unemployment woman and unemployment man in Russia: sociological portrait. Gender dimension of State Policy in Russia concerning unemployment.

 

Part 4. Employment in Informal Economy: Gender Aspect

Theme 4.1. Women and Men in Informal Economy

The definition of informal economy. The evaluations of informal economy sizes. The distribution of women and men in informal economy (in the household sector, in the informal sector, in the irregular sector, in the criminal sector). Gender dimension of work in informal economy: the search of work, conditions of work, wages and etc.

Theme 4.2. Women, Men and Household

Unpaid work for keeping house: is it work or not? Methods of evaluating unpaid household work. Gender dimension of the labour division within household: traditions and new tendencies.

Conclusion

Discussion: "Is Gender Equality Utopia or Not?".

 

READINGS

A. MANDATORY

In Russian

  1. Baskakov V., Baskakova M. (1998) Pensions for men and women: social aspects of pension reform –Moscow
  2. Baskakova M. (1998) Equal Opportunities and Gender Stereotypes at the Labor Market - Moscow
  3. Chirikova Alla (1998) Women as a Head of Firm - Moscow
  4. Mashkova E., Zayceva I. Practice of Women's Entrepreneurship in Monoindustrial Town/ Reader for the workshop "Women's Role in Social Development" in the framework of INTERWEEK’1996
  5. Sexual Harassment at the Work Place (Seminar Material on Women's Rights in Russia) edited by Khotkina Zoya - Moscow, 1996
  6. Theory and History of Feminism (1996) edited by Irina Zherebkina - Kharkov Center for ender Studies, F-Press
  7. West, C. And D.H. Zimmerman Doing Gender (the first chapter in The Social Construction of Gender edited by Judith Lorber and Susan A. Farrell) - translation by Zdravomyslova Elena in Feminism and Gender Studies edited by Uspenskaya V.I - Tver: 1999
  8. Zdravomyslova Elena (1994) Women without Work/ All people - Sisters. Bulletin ?3. - St-Petersburg.
  9. Zdravomyslova Elena, Temkina Anna (1999) Social Construction of Gender as Feminism Theory// in the book Women, Gender, Culture/ Russian Summer Schools on Gender Studies. Moscow Center of Gender Studies
  10. Mezenceva E. Gender Economics: Theoretical Approaches – Voprosy Ekonomiki ?3,2000

In English

  1. Alejandro Portes (1994) The Informal Economy and Its Paradoxes in The Handbook of Economic Sociology edited by Neil J. Smelser and Richard Swedberg. - Princeton University Press
  2. Barbara Reskin and Irene Padavic (1994) Women and men at work Thousand Oaks, L., New Delhi, Pine Forge Press (Chapters: 4 (Sex Segregation in the Workplace), 5 (Sex ifferences in Moving Up and Taking Charge), 6 (sex Differences in Earnigs), 7 (Construction of the Genderd Worlplace))
  3. Chris Tilly and Charles Tilly (1994) Capitalist Work and Labor Markets in the Handbook of Economic Sociology edited by Neil J. Smelser and Richard Swedberg. - Princeton University Press
  4. Ruth Milkman and Eleanor Townsley Gender and the Economy (1994) in The Handbook of Economic Sociology edited by Neil J. Smelser and Richard Swedberg. - Princeton University Press

B. RECOMMENDED

In Russian

  1. Barsukova Svetlana. Image of Women Entrepreneur in Mass Media/ ECO N2 1998
  2. Barsukova Svetlana. Women's Entrepreneurship: Specificity and Perspectives in Sociologicheskie Issledovaniya N9, 1999
  3. Mesenzeva E. Women in Employment and at the Labor Market: some results of ten-year-reforms* (from http://www.owl.ru)
  4. Vershinana T. (1998) Labor Market in Transforming Period and Problems of Adaptation in Society and Economy: the social problem of transformation. - Novosibirsk

In English

  1. Alberto Mortinelly Entrepreneurship and Management (1994) in edited by Neil J. Smelser and Richard Swedberg The Handbook of Economic Sociology. - Princeton University Press
  2. Anne Witz and Mike Savage (1992) The Gender of Organizations in M.Savage and A.Witz (ed.) Gender and Bureucracy – Oxford, Cambridge, Blackwell Publishers
  3. Carol Ireson and Sandra Gill (1988) Girls’ Socialisation for work in Women working - Theories and facts in perspective. California
  4. Class, Race and Gender/ Social Stratification in Sociological Perspective (1994) edited by Grusky David. - Westview Press Boulder. San Francisco. Oxford.
  5. Edward H. Thompson, Jr. Joseph H. Pleck (1987) The Structure of male Role Norms in edited by Michael S. Kimmel Changing Men. New Directions in Research on Men and Masculinity. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE
  6. Elena Dmitrieva (1996) Orientations, re-orientations or disorientations ? in edited by Hilary Pilkington Gender, generation and identity in contemporary Russia London: Routledge
  7. Elisabeth Sundin Entrepreneurial Theory - A Theory Just for Men/ Reader for the workshop "Women's Role in Social Development" in the frame of INTERWEEK 1996
  8. Francine D. Blau and Carol L. Jusenius (1976) Economists’ approaches to sex segregation in the labor market: an appraisal in Women and Workplace. The implications of Occupational Segregation. Chicago
  9. Gail Warshofsky Lapidus (1976) Occupational segregation and public policy: a comparative analysis of America and Soviet Patterns in Women and Workplace. The implications of Occupational Segregation. Chicago
  10. Gary Alan Fine ( 1987) One of the Boys. Women in Male-Dominated Settings in edited by Michael S. Kimmel Changing Men. New Directions in Research on Men and Masculinity.- Newbury Park, CA: SAGE
  11. Gender Relations in Public and Private (1996) edited by Lydia Morris. MacMillan Press
  12. Harriet Bradley (1998) Gender and Power in the Work place: Analysing the Impact of Economic Change: St. Martin´s Press, NY
  13. Hiedi Hartmann (1976) Capitalism, patriarchy, and job segregation by sex in Women and Workplace. The implications of Occupational Segregation. Chicago
  14. Irina Tartakovskaia (1996) Women's career patterns in industry (a generation comparison) in Gender, generation and identity in contemporary Russia edited by Hilary Pilkington - London: Routledge
  15. Jean Lipman-Blumen (1976) Toward a Homosocial Theory of Sex Roles: an explanation of the Sex segregation of social institutions in Women and Workplace. The implications of Occupational Segregation. Chicago
  16. Jeanette N. Cleveland and Kathleen Mcnamara Understanding Sexual Harassment: Contributions from Reserach Domestic Violance and Organisational Change in edited by Margaret S. Stockdale Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Perspective, Frontiers and Response Strategies, SAGE publications, London
  17. Judith A. Howard and Jocelyn A. Hollander (1997) Gendered Situations, Gendered Selves - Thousand Oaks
  18. Judith Lorber (1994) Paradoxes of Gender Yale University Press. New Haven and London, 1994
  19. Kate Purcell Gender and the Experience of Employment
  20. King J.E. (1990) Labour Economics. - M. MACMILLAN
  21. Margaret L. Andersen (1998) Thinking about Women: Sociological Perspectives on Sex and Gender – Macmillan Publishing company, New York
  22. Marta Bruno Employment strategies and the formation of new identities in the service sector in Moscow (1996) in edited by Hilary Pilkington Gender, generation and identity in contemporary Russia - London: Routledge
  23. Informal Economy. Russia and World (1999) edited by Theodor Shanin – Logos, Moscow
  24. Pamela Abbot and Claire Wallace (1990) An introduction to Sociology: feminist perspectives Routledge London and New York
  25. R.W. Connell (1996) Gender and Power: Society, the Personal and Sexual Policy: Polity Press
  26. Rita Mae Kelly (1991) The Gendered Economy: Work, Careers and Success – SAGE Publications, Inc., Newbury Park and London
  27. Sandra Christy Women, Work and the Workplace in Linda L. Lindsey Gender Roles: a Sociological Perspective Prentice Hall Inc
  28. Shelley Coverman (1988) Sociological Explanations of the Male-Female Wage Gap: Individualist and Structuralist theories in Women working - Theories and facts in perspective. California
  29. Sue Bridger and Rebecca Kay(1996) Gender and generation in new Russian labour market in Gender, generation and identity in contemporary Russia edited by Hilary Pilkington. - London: Routledge
  30. Ulrike Teubner Professionalisation and Gender Hierarchy in edited by Regina Becker-Schmidt Gender and Work in Transition (Reader for Project Area WORK, International Women University, 2000)
  31. Valentine M. Moghadam (1999) Gender and the Global Economy in edited by Myra Marx Ferree, Judith Lorber and Beth B.Hess Revisioning Gender : SAGE Publications




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