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   Course Title    Fundamentals of Environmental Management
Lecturer    Yegor Zadereev
Institution    Krasnoyarsk State University
Country    Russia


Environmental management is a broad and rapidly developing discipline. Cutting edge of environmental management is the series of environmental management standards prepared by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO 14000 standards). This series standardises the following key aspects of environmental management: environmental management systems, environmental audit, environmental performance evaluation, and life cycle assessment. Thus, a number of methods of this discipline are already used in practice. Several of these standards are approved in Russia as voluntary standards. Unfortunately, in the Russian Federation the development of environmental management and its practical application are not rather advanced. A traditional way of management in Russia is the command and control approach. A change in the current system of decision-making is required for the application of the concepts of environmental management. The preparation of the experts familiar with the basic concepts of this approach is required to make such a transition.

The proposed academic course will present a comprehensive introduction to the principles and practices of business applications of environmental management.

The main aims of this course are:

  • to explain the structure and function of different environmental management tools used in business;
  • to give a broad picture of how and where these tools and methods are currently used or can be used in the nearest future;
  • to give knowledge and basic practical skills for the application of these methods.


This course can be taught for students of different environmental sciences related disciplines at senior level in the undergraduate curricula. Currently, the course is one of the disciplines comprising a curriculum of the Biological Department of Krasnoyarsk State University in the first semester of the 2000/2001 academic year. The course deals with interdisciplinary issues and is aimed at developing an ability to use in practice fundamental knowledge received at the traditional university.


The pedagogical methods will include lectures, discussions and presentations prepared and performed by students. Lectures will be accompanied with a substantial quantity of case studies and information related to the application of environmental management tools in practice.


Lecture 1. Introduction into environmental management.

Historical development of environmental management. Main characteristics and definition of environmental management. Environmental management approaches. Main problems and future opportunities of environmental management.

Lecture 2. Environmental management and business. ISO 14000 environmental management standards: a common framework for environmental management in business.

Historical links between environmental management and business. Corporate environmental management. Environmental business approaches. Brief overview of International Organisation for Standardisation. ISO 14000 environmental management standards: areas of application, world trends of application, advantages and disadvantages of ISO 14000 series.

Lectures 3-5. Environmental management systems (EMS).

Historical development of environmental management system concepts (BS 7750, EMAS, ISO 14001, etc.). Main definitions and objectives of EMS implementation. Limitations of the ISO 14001 EMS. The status of ISO 14001 and environmental certification in Russia. Implementation of environmental management systems in accordance with ISO 14001 standard (key steps and possible ways of their realisation):

Environmental policy (gaining the commitment of the top management, initial environmental review).

Planning (The identification of the environmental aspects and significant environmental impacts, identification of legal and other requirements, defining environmental objectives and targets, establishment of environmental management programme).

Implementation and Operation (structure and responsibility, training, awareness and competence, communication, environmental management system documentation, document control, operational control, emergency preparedness and response).

Checking and correcting action (monitoring and measurement, non conformance and corrective and preventive action, records, environmental management system audit).

Management review.

Lectures 6-7. Environmental and social performance evaluation and reporting.

Key themes in environmental and social performance evaluation and reporting.

Environmental performance evaluation (EPE). The evolution of EPE. The EP framework and ISO 14000 standards. Main definitions and objectives of EPE. The process of EPE in accordance with ISO standards:

  • Planning (management consideration, selecting of indicators).

Description of different types of EPE indicators. Examples of existing indicators. Criteria for selecting indicators. Possible approaches for selecting indicators.

  • Evaluation (collecting data, analysing data, evaluation information, reporting and communication).
  • Review and improvement of environmental performance evaluation.

Social performance evaluation. Reporting (pressures for reporting, environmental and social reporting, costs and benefits of reporting). The relationship between environmental and social performance and business performance.

Lecture 8. Environmental audit.

Definitions, aims and types of environmental audit. Main principles of environmental management systems audit. Main definitions, objectives, roles, responsibilities and activities in EMS audit. Main legal requirements for the conduction of EMS audit in Russia. Environmental management audit in accordance with ISO 14011 standard:

  • Initiating the audit (audit scope, preliminary document review).

Documents and type of data required for the preliminary document review and EMS audit.

  • Preparing the audit (audit plan, audit team assignment, working documents).
  • Conducting the audit (opening meeting, collecting audit evidence, audit findings, and closing meeting).
  • Audit report and document retention (preparation of audit report, content of audit report, distribution of audit report, document retention).

Seminar 1. Planning environmental management system.

One/two weeks before the seminar the student body will be divided on several groups. Each of these groups will present the results of identification of the environmental aspects and significant environmental impacts of given organisation.

Lecture 9-10. Life cycle assessment (LCA).

Brief history of life cycle assessment. LCA methodology:

  • Goal definition and scoping (defining the purpose defining boundary conditions).
  • LC Inventory methodology (defining the scope and boundaries, gathering data, analysis and reporting the study results, interpreting results). Variable practices for performing LCI studies.
  • Impact assessment (classification, characterisation, and valuation).

Examples of LCA applications. LCA problems and uncertainties.

Seminar 2. Practical application of life cycle assessment.

One/two weeks before the seminar the student body will be divided on several groups. Each of these groups will prepare and present brief LCA of given product.

Final discussion/Consultation.

The main purposes of final discussion are:

  • To give brief overview of presented during the course environmental management tools and practices.
  • Briefly describe relationships and interactions between different tools of environmental management.

After the final discussion it should be clear in student's mind "when, where and how" business applications of environmental management can be used.

Assessment, evaluation

The following system of an estimation of knowledge is proposed. The maximum quantity of points for academic semester is 100 points. During the period of training the points are distributed as follows. The student may receive up to 20 points for each of the two assignments, carried out during a semester. On the final test the student may receive up to 60 points. The given system of an estimation may easily be applied both to the traditional Russian high school five-grade scale, and to a scale of an estimation from two gradation - "passed" " not passed" (it is necessary for the student to collect more than 50 points to receive "passed" grade).


(The main problem with the compilation of the reading list for this course, in the case of a Russian university, is the lack of published literature on the topic in Russian and the absence of English literature in Russian libraries. That is why the list will contain several on-line documents. Also, recommended readings contain several books that should be included in mandatory readings but in any case will not be available for Russian students).


  1. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations. United States Environment protection Agency. Document on-line:
  2. International Standardisation Organisation (ISO). 1996. Environmental management system - Specification with guidance for use (ISO 14001: 1996). Brussels: European Committee for Standardisation.
  3. ________ 1996. Environmental management systems - general guidelines on principles, systems, and supporting techniques. ISO 14004: 1996E.
  4. ________ 1996. Environmental management - Environmental performance evaluation - Guideline. ISO/WD 14031.5
  5. ISO 14010 Guidelines for Environmental Auditing Audit.
  6. ISO 14011 Procedures Part 1: Auditing of Environmental Management Systems Guidelines for Environmental Auditing.
    Only lecturer can provide items from 2 to 6, as they are official texts of ISO standards that are not available for unauthorised users.
  7. Sturm A. ISO 14001 - Implementing an environmental management system. Book on-line:


  1. Barrow C.J. Environmental management. Principles and practice. London: Routledge. 1999. 326 p.
  2. Curran M.A. Environmental life cycle assessment. United States of America: McGraw-Hill. 1996.
  3. The European Environmental Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). EC Regulation 1836/93.
  4. Hunt, D., and Johnson, C. 1995. Environmental management systems. Principles and practice. London: McGraw-Hill Book.
  5. Sustainable measures. Evaluation and reporting of environmental and social performance. Ed. by M.Bennett, J. Peter. Greenleaf Publishing. 1999.
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