|Course Title||Regional Ecology|
|Institution||Moscow State Pedagogical University|
The state of environment in urban and industrial areas - general characteristics. Human ecology and social ecology of the large industrial cities: abiotic, biotic and social factors of the urban environment and their general impacts on human beings, society and economy.
Urban impact on health status and demographic characteristics of the human populations; urban populations in comparison with the rural populations (in modern Russia and in the world).
Factors of urbanisation; present trends in urbanisation in Russia and in the world.
Contemporary problems in developing urban ecology in Russia and some results of the anthropo-ecological studies in the Soviet/Russian cities.
Main characteristics of environmental situation in industrial cities, the ways /mechanisms/ and results of their impacts on health, demography and human behaviour:
Discussions on the concept of the "optimal urban population density".
The concept of the "Maximum Possible Concentration (MPC) of pollutants in the environment" in the former USSR and in Russia; environmental standards in Europe and North America (in comparison with the contemporary Russian approach). The use of such criteria in:
1. evaluating environmental situation in the cities or on the work places;
2. evaluation levels of possible /allowed/ emissions of pollutants into air and water by either the particular industrial enterprises or the major general sources of pollution (cars, industries, residence areas).
Main problems, arising from the predominant use of the concept of MPC in urban ecology:
1. problems in calculating levels of the possible /allowed/ emissions of pollutants into air and water by particular industrial enterprises, arising due to: (a) seasonal and weather-dependent variations in migrations of pollutants between atmosphere, hydrosphere, soils; (b) chemical reactions between various pollutants in air, water, soil, leading to emergence of the new chemical substances with either stronger or lower harmful effects;
2. different biological adaptability of humans to the impacts of urban pollutants due to: (a) age, (b) sex, (c) individual health status, life history and present life styles;
The long-time effects of urban pollution, permanently exceeding the MPC levels, and their impact on human health - differences between pathological functional changes in the human body (1st stage) and illness (2nd stage). The size of actual increases in mortality, caused by pollution in the cities.
The concept of the "Maximum Possible Level (MPL) of Concentration of pollutant in the human body", its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the concept of the MPC .Major problems, arising from the use of the MPL concept in urban ecology.
Environmental situation in the worst Russian cities and industrial centers, its causes and effects.
The programme (totally 50 hours during the 5th academic year) generally consists of 6 parts: