|Course Title||Environmental Policy|
|Institution||Kharkiv Academy of Municipal Economy|
I. AIM OF THE COURSE
To form the national basis for social-political analysis of common ecological policy at the macro-, mezzo-, and micro-level, to give the notion of the possibilities and modes of environmental thought, the political criteria, mechanisms and decisions.
II. ROLE OF THE COURSE IN THE OVERALL DEGREE CURRICULUM
The course is based on the professional subjects having been read before and being the part of an administrative block. It has common ground with the courses which the students are taught in "Ecological management", " Environmental Economics ", "Ecological examination".
III. METHODS USED
The course is taught using the modern active methods. Seminars are designed so that the case study method is applied. One research strategy which may be thought to increase validity is the case study which: uses multiple sources of evidence to analyze or evaluate a specific phenomenon or instance. Most case study research is interpretive and seeks to bring to life a case. Case studies often provide fascinating reading due to the richness of the data. Examples of the use of case studies in education research include the work of Lacey (1970) and Ball (1981), both of whom explored particular schools, Willis (1979) who studies a group of teenage boys within a school, and Bartlett (1998a) who studied the changing arrangements for teacher appraisal in three schools.
IV. COURSE CONTENT
Introduction WEEK 1
Basic notions and definition of ecological policy.
Political institutions and political methods of managing the quality of the environment.
Principles of politological analysis of ecological problems WEEK 2
Place and Role of ecological policy among the global problems today.
Basis of politological analysis of social-ecological problems.
Seminar: Examples of politological analysis of social-ecological problems (on the Ukrainian material).
Case study: Environmental issues in post-communist Ukraine.
Ukraine, which gained independence in 1991, faces serious problems of environmental degradation. Environmental problems contribute to deterioration in human health and a negative trend in population growth. Both form part of a plethora of socio-economic problems encountered during the country's transition to a free market economy. The most serious problems are found in cities and areas near the Black and Azov Seas, the Dnipro river basin and in the Polissya region. This paper provides an overview of the situation. Social and managerial implications of environmental management are considered alongside associated environmental and human health problems in the country. It is concluded that a desired change in the mindset of policy makers and, indeed, the population at large, is required in parallel with legal and technocratic instruments, while real improvements can only be achieved through economic development, which can be facilitated by Western assistance.
Laws and principles of functioning of socioecosystems WEEK 3
The main laws and principles of functioning of socioecosystems.
The main principles of functioning of socioecosystems.
Conception of sustainable development WEEK 4
The history of the appearance of the conception.
The main principles of the "Agenda for the 21st century."
Limitations and admittance of the conception.
Seminar: Working out the strategy of sustainable development for the separate region of Ukraine.
Case study: Sustainable Development – finding a specific meaning in the context of transition.
Many different definitions have been given for the term "sustainable development", since it became world famous through the 1987 report of the Bruntland Commission. Interpretations vary from conservationist approaches, which suggest a complete failure of the capitalist and market system and the need for a post-technological society, to technocratic views, which underline the necessity for development in order to achieve a sustainable society.
In the Eastern European context, the meaning of sustainable development has to be seen in relation to the development these countries went through during the Communist regime, and in relation to the necessary changes and adjustments the transition period brought about.
One of the main differences between a pure traditional market approach and a sustainable development view is the time factor. Whereas conventional economic reasoning is used to evaluate economic performance in yearly time periods, a sustainable view would look to future gains – ranging from five or ten years time spans to intergenerational responsibility relations.
The experience of formation and realization of ecological policy in economically developed countries WEEK 5
The history of development and constitutional institutions of legal regulation of the examination of the quality of the environment in the USA.
Mechanisms of environmental legislation in the USA.
International legislation, which regulates the quality of the environment.
European nature protection legislation WEEK 6
History, aim and principles of European nature protection legislation.
Seminar: Examples of using nature protection legislation (environmental policy of EU).
Case Study: The future for environmental policy within the EU
Environmental policy has been slow to develop in the history of the European Union. The early policy action of the 1960s and 1970s was fragmented. It was based on reactive measures, which concentrated on finding remedies for specific problems and harmonization of national policies to prevent distortion of trade. The EU’s environmental policy at the beginning of the twenty-first century is part of the global search for policies which will achieve a balance between environmental protection, economic growth and more rational allocation of increasingly scarce natural resources. The treaty revisions made in Maastricht (1992) and Amsterdam (1997) have provided a firm basis for the policy, which emerged in the late 1990s. The policy is based on a wide-ranging body of legislation, which has been augmented throughout the 1990s by the development of a number of other tools of policy, for example: voluntary registration for schemes such as the eco-label initiative, advocacy of eco-taxation within the national policy structures and the enhanced funding opportunities for environmental policy.
The European Union and its policy relative to environment WEEK 7
The history, structure and principles of the European Union.
The aim and principles of European Union policy relative to the environment.
Decision of ecological problems in the countries with transitional economies and in developing countries WEEK 8
The history of the development and basis of the ecological policy of post-communist countries.
Constitutional norms and principles of ecological conceptions of the countries of Eastern Europe.
Seminar: Examples of legal implementation in the countries with transitional economies.
Case study: Examples of law implementation in the countries with transitional economies
Implementation, the process of giving effect to EU environmental policy at the national level, is achieved when EU legislation is enacted into national statutes and administrative practice. The obligation to implement EU law is found Article 10 of the Treaty, which requires member states to `take all appropriate measures, whether general or particular, to ensure fulfillment of the obligations arising out of this Treaty or resulting from action taken by institutions`. In practice, this obligation has three components: the establishment of rights and obligations as laid down in the text of legislation; the amendment of contradictory national legislation; and the creation of the necessary structures to ensure that the terms of legislation are carried out.
The history of prognosis hype and modern prognoses of ecological future WEEK 9
The history and conception of prognosis in the development of global socio-ecological systems.
Ecological policy as a part of economic policy WEEK 10
Nature-resources and ecological problems: the views of economists (from the past to the future).
Seminar: Analysis of the resolution of key economic problems from the point of view of long-term ecological problems.
Case study: Socio-economic condition
Since 1991, the governments of all CIS counties have pursued economic reform. This has been in close co-operation with Western financial organizations, primarily the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. It is often stated in diplomatic declarations that the objective of the reforms is to build wealthy and democratic, free market societies similar to the industrialized countries of the West. Indeed, inspired by mass media propaganda in the early 1990s, many Ukrainians believed that a free market would cure most economic ills, improve standards of living and would also provide the basis for rational and effective use of natural resources….
Market relations and ecological economy WEEK 11
Market relations and the possibility for sustainable development.
Economic possibility of the ideas of sustainable development.
Ecological economy as a science in decision-making processes WEEK 12
The system of support in taking decisions in ecological policy.
Economic instruments of environmental policy in countries with transitional economies.
Social aspects of the development of ecological policy WEEK 13
Religious, cultural and class-economical reasons for ecological crisis.
The main themes of people's relation to nature.
Ecological ethics, humanism, ideology and culture WEEK 14
Ecological and global ethics.
Ecological culture as a form of theoretically ‘returning man to nature.’
Problems and perspectives in the realization of ecological policy in the period of transitional economy WEEK 15
Politico-juridical institutions and peculiarities of modern ecological policy.
International cooperation and obligations of Ukraine in the field of governing the quality of the environment.
The modern situation of the environment in countries with transitional economies WEEK 16
The situation of the environment in Ukraine.
Working out "The main directions of state policy in the field of environmental protection"(1998).
Seminar: Analysis of the programme of sustainable development of Ukraine.
Case study: Sustainable development in Less Developed Countries and Eastern Europe.
Apart from the fact that both claims mentioned above are rather utopian, the differences between the two approaches becomes evident when going into detail. The same is true for Eastern Europe.
In Europe and North America, the first steps are undertaken through the creation of strategic alliances between politicians and interested business representatives. Other regions and countries of the world, however, have legitimate claims for their further development.
Problems of the ecological strategy of Ukraine in the context of global development WEEK 17
The conception of sustainable development and partnership in the process "Pio + 10".
World standards of environmental legislation WEEK 18
Obstacles to raising environmental legislation to world standards.
Problems in the implementation of legislation.
Seminar: Summing up the lesson. Working out the tests by students on the material read during the course.
Case study: Legal requirements for EIA in the Czech Republic
The principles of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), translated in the Czech equivalent as ‘assessment of consequences for the environment`, are incorporated into Czech legislation in three legal instruments:
1. Federal Act on the Environment, No. 17/1992, December 5 , 1991;
2. Czech Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, No. 244 / 1992, April 15, 1992;
3. decree of the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, `Professional Competence to Evaluate Environmental Impact and on the Means and Procedure for Public Discussion of Expert Opinion`, No. 499/1992, October 1, 1992.
All of this legislation was enacted before the dissolution of the Federation of the Czech and Slovak Republics in 1993, but it was subsequently adopted by the independent Czech Republic. The legislation is given in full in European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (1994). It is based in part on the European Community's Directive 85/337/EEC.
The Federal Act No. 17/1992 is semi-constitutional in nature, and EIA is implemented through the more detailed provisions of the Federal Act, which apply directly. These include the Federal Act's definition of the content of EIA documentation in a trans-boundary context, and its corresponding list of projects that are subject to international discussion.
Analysis of the relevance of newly introduced EIA legislation.
1. Gilpin A.
Dictionary of environmental and sustainable development.
ISBN 0-471-96291-8 (Cl)
ISBN 0-471-96220-1 (Pr)
2. World Resources 2000-2001: People and Ecosystems: The Fraying Web of Life
3. Foundations of Natural Resources Policy and Management
Ed. by Tim W. Clark, Audrey R. Willard
4. Vanishing Borders.
5. Introduction to Education Studies
Steve Bartlett, Diana Burton
6. Development education. Global Perspectives in the Curriculum
Ed. by Audrey Osler
7. Economic rights and Environmental Wrongs
Property Rights for the Common Good
Rose Anne Devlin, R. Quentin Grafton
8. Environmental Assessment in Countries in Transition
Ed. by Ed Bellinger, N. Lee, C. George, A. Paduret
EIA Center. Department of Planning and Landscape.
University of Manchester,
Manchester, United Kingdom.