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   Course Title    Basic Ecological Monitoring
Lecturer    Dina Smirnova
Institution    Kazakh State University of Agriculture
Country    Kazakhstan


To teach the bases of monitoring the quality of the environment.

To gain an insight into ecological monitoring, get students acquainted with its legal bases in Kazakhstan and other countries, basic physical, chemical, biological methods of monitoring, to learn how to organize work for the purposes of monitoring.

This course is meant for final year students. Students should already have some knowledge in such subjects as physics chemistry, zoology, botany, geography and ecology.



This is a generalized course and can be taught for all those students, who will use natural resources in the future, it can be modified depending on the basic specialty of the students. Our university prepars specialists for using natural resources. As a rule, all decisions are made after an evaluation of water ecosystems. The dates are from environmental monitoring. Existing state monitoring systems do not meet the requirements, especially concerning biota monitoring. In such case we need to obtain this data ourselves.



The pedagogical methods will include lectures, seminars, discussions. As, the realization of works on ecological monitoring necessarily depends on field and laboratory research, large laboratory practical works are needed. To acquaint students with the state system of ecological monitoring excursions are needed to the appropriate organizations. It is also necessary to include works on ecological monitoring as summer field practice.



Lecture 1. Introduction.

Concept of ecological monitoring, its importance. A history of the rise, local and foreign experience of monitoring organizations. The purposes and tasks of monitoring. Basic constituting - supervising, estimation, forecast of the environment’s state.

Lecture 2. Rationing of the environment’s quality. Basic concepts and definitions.

Safe load, xenobiotics, limiting allowable concentration, combined and aggregate influence.

Lecture 3. Rationing of quality of air, water, soil.

The basic documents regulating quality of air, water, ground. Classes of danger of chemical substances. Regulation in the field of radiating safety.

Lecture 4. Classification of environmental monitoring

Various approaches to the classification of monitoring. Monitoring of biosphere: geophysical monitoring, biological monitoring. Monitoring of the affecting factors: physical, biological, chemical.

Lecture 5. Structure of state environmental monitoring, legal bases of state environmental monitoring.

State bodies obliged to carry out monitoring at a state, regional level. State network of monitoring. System of collecting and treating information.

Practical work 1. Methods of environmental monitoring: Physical and Chemical methods.

Review of the most widespread methods of physical and chemical analysis. Visiting physical and chemical laboratories

Practical work 2. Methods of environmental monitoring: Biological methods.

The review of most methods of the biological analysis.. Methods of bioindication. Methods of bioassesment. Visiting biological laboratories

Lecture 6. Development of the program of ecological monitoring.

Definition of the purposes and tasks. A choice of priorities: objects of monitoring and determined parameters. The preliminary analysis of a situation. An arrangement of posts of monitoring. A choice of the equipment and methods of the analysis.

Lecture 7. Treating results of monitoring and forecasting the state of the environment. Decision making on the basis of the forecasts.

At the end of the course students should work on the development of the program of environmental monitoring for concrete natural objects.

For the students of the agrarian university the emphasis is supposed to be on biological methods.


V. Reading

Please download the reading list here in WinWord 97 format.

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