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   Course Title    Ecological Problems of Pavlodar Region
Lecturer    Botagoz Shaimardanova
Institution    Pavlodar State University named after S.Toraighyrov
Country    Kazakhstan

1. Aim of the course.

To discover the actual ecological problems of the region concerned with the technogenic environment pollution, to show how the scientific community, students and school children can participate in nature protection events and ecological situation improvement in Pavlodar city and in the region.

2. Role of the course in the overall degree curriculum.

The course expands and concretizes knowledge in the field of global ecological problems, develops skills toward finding practical solutions to some situations. This course is a part of training process for biology, geography and ecology students. The content of the course is directly connected with the related disciplines: biology, geography, population studies, etc.

This course is a separate part of the complex ecological students, postgraduate and schoolteachers training at Pavlodar region; employees of state structures involved in environmental protection are also trained by this program. These organizations and the Natural Sciences Department of Pavlodar State University named after S.Toraighyrov have a contract on collaboration in the field of increasing the professional knowledge level of their employees.

3. Methods used.

The course is taught through different forms of lessons: lectures, practical trainings, and seminars at which students discuss ecological problems. The various formulae and necessary equations for the resolution of ecological situations are used. At the end of the course students must pass a test.

4. Course content.

The given course contains 8 lectures and 9 seminars.

Lecture 1. Introduction. General review of the ecological situation in the Pavlodar region. The industrial enterprises of the Pavlodar area as polluters of the environment. Consequences of nuclear tests at Semipalatinsk range. Mercury lake as a threat of the Irtysh river poisoning. Oil refining plants and problems of petroleum pollution. Problems of Bayanaul national natural park: eutrification of lakes, wood fires, poaching.

Lecture 2. Overexploitation of resources. Types of soils and agriculture. Mutual relation of the climate, soil and ecosystem. Influence of man on the environment. Soil erosion, its influence on the environment. Speed of formation in comparison with the speed of its loss. Losses of layer in Kazakhstan and other countries of the world.

Wind erosion of soils: reasons and consequences. Problem of Irtysh riverbed steppization and global problems of soil desertification. Methods of struggling with erosion.

State programs on soil preservation, stimulation of nature protection measures.

Seminar 1. Discussion: stability and biological variety of ecosystems. Indexes of biological variety and similarities of some biological objects. Successions of plants. Measures of struggle with soil pollution. Wood procurements and soil erosion.

Lecture 3. Environmental pollution and use of alternative resources. Pollution by heavy metals. Biological monitoring of the environment.

Seminar 2. Problems of fresh water: Resources, pollution, and ways of clearing and protection of earth waters. Living organisms as indicators of pollution of the external environment.

Lecture 4. Air pollution. Estimation of influences rendered on nature. Sizes of forests in the Pavlodar region and their value from the point of view of nature preservation.

Seminar 3. Discussion: emissions of toxic substances. Change of atmosphere structure. Industrial sources of carbon dioxide and its fixation by pinewood (Bayanaul, Chalday).

Lecture 5. Traditional sources of energy: stocks and consumption. Power problems of the region. Thermal pollution. Estimation of open development stone coal working out influence on the environment.

Seminar 4. Natural sources of electric power. Ekibastuz coal, environment and health of the Pavlodar region population. Problem of ash-wastes. Influence of power stations on the habitat. Hydroelectrical energy. Economy of energy.

Seminar 5. Petroleum in Kazakhstan: brief historical sketch. Stocks of petroleum and natural gas: production and consumption. Non-conventional sources of energy (wind and solar) and the way of its accumulation. Synthetic fuel. Economic and social aspects of atomic engineering. Global prospects: petroleum pollution.

Lecture 6. Health of people and environment. Cancerogenes in the environment: radiation, nicotine. Toxicological control in Kazakhstan, CIS. Women’s rights and place of work. Voluntary risk: cancer factors in food, tobacco, smoke etc.

Seminar 6. Toxic substances at the workplace. Smoking: personal form of air pollution. Toxic substances in medicines and cosmetics. Food, illnesses and food additions. Mode of living and illnesses: healthy food. Preventive maintenance of cancer.

Lecture 7. Green "lungs" of cities. State programs on gardening and protection of plantations in the Pavlodar region. Phythopathological situation: reasons and consequences.

Lecture 8. Preservation of state territories. Natural territories. Reserved nature: problem of availability. Rare and disappearing kinds, their protection at the national natural Bayanaul park . State nature protection movement. Environment management.

Seminar 7. Problem of land resources. Bayanaul national natural park in steppe region of Kazakhstan. Succession and climax in natural ecosystems. Problem of pine desiccation of Bayanaul.

Seminar 8. Protection and restoration of the environment - personal choice of everyone. The basic state structures supervising the situation in the region. Non-state public organizations participating in the solution of problems of environmental protection.

Seminar 9. Discussion: "Can each of us protect the planet? " The initiative of Pavlodar State University students - "EcoForum", contest of ecological knowledge for school children. Various actions for Pavlodar region youth: " EcoPark by our own hands", " Clean paths- at Bayanaul national park ". Conversations with the population about ecological culture. Patron work with school children in ecological society.

5. Readings

A. Mandatory:

A.R.Ennos & S.E.R.Bailey. Problem solving in environmental biology. Longman. 1995.

Barnard C., Gilbert F. & McGregor P., Asking Questions in Biology: Design, Analysis and Presentation of Practical Work. Longman, Harlow. 1993.

P.ReVelle, J.ReVelle. The Environment. Issues and Choices for Society. 1995.

The Environment. Principles and Applications. 2nd edition. Chris Park. 2001.

B. Recommended:

Environmental Planning: The Conservation and Development of Biophysical Resources. Paul Selman. 2000.

Dictionary of Environmental Science. Eleanor Lawrence, Andrew R.W.Jackson, Julie M. Jackson. Longman. 1998.

The Skeptical Environmentalist. Measuring the Real State of the World. Bjorn Lomborg. 2001.

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