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   Course Title    Eco-Management
Lecturer    Katinka Mihova
Institution    Sofia Forestry University
Country    Bulgaria

I. Introduction

At the end of XX and at the beginning of XXI century we are realizing the necessity of management and governance of the environmental aspects of business activities. On the other side, the environmental activity will benefit if it develops under the principles of management.

The course depends on such courses as Management, Economics, and is close to others such as Forestry Economics, Forest Policy, Forest Assessment and Evaluation etc. It gives fundamentals of some of the directions of resource and environmental management at different levels – firm, local, state, global.

The course also gives some additional knowledge to the students as future managers.


Objectives of the Course

This course has two main goals:

A. To make students conversant with relevant environmental aspects of management, environmental problems and solutions for solving them at different levels: firm, local, state, global.

B. The course thus involves many practical examples and gives some knowledge for future private and public policy framework of protecting environment in the vision of sustainable development (practical skills for adequate analysis of firm management approaches to environmental problems and aspects; development of environmental policy at firm level etc.)


Course Detail

Lecture topics:

1. Management/governance of environmental problems; EcoManagement and Environmental Management - main principles, categories.

- Brief overlook of the course; main terms and their fundamental principles.

2. Environmental crisis. Reasons for natural environment’s degradation; market failure.

- What environmental problems are there? Who is responsible for them? The impact of environmental changes and degradation.

3. Relations between economy and environment; managing the processes, Development of the theories / paradigm.

- Different visions for development of the world. Information about main classifications of so called paradigms.

4. Environmental Sciences and Ecology - basic contents and development. Main categories in ecology.

- Summarizing information on main ecological categories and principles. Connection with the idea of ecological management.

5. Sustainable development - the concept between two centuries.

- Sustainable development as one of the vision and paradigm for humanity development – rising of the idea, content, aspects, principles. International and state initiatives.

6. Environmental risk - levels, uncertainty, typology. Perception of the risk. Risk management.

- Risk assessment is used as a tool in managing environmental problems; theoretical and practice aspects of risk assessment (estimating risk) and risk management (making choices).

7. Environmental policy - goals, principles. Economically optimal environmental policy. Environmental policy of the EU.

- Development of environmental policy EP; Environmental groups and EP, goals and principles; Policy-making process, stakeholders; implementation and enforcement of EP.

8. Assessment of the natural resources. Principles and methods for assessment and evaluation.

- Exhaustible resources (scarcity) and renewable resources (overharvesting and sustainable use); Concept of ‘total economic value’; evaluation approaches to natural resources – not-market valuation methods.

9. Pollution as an externality. "Private benefits" v.s. "public costs". Environmental taxes.

- Positive externalities, public goods; Negative externalities (private benefits and public costs): approaches of Pigou (Pigovian taxes) and theorem of Coase (market bargains).

10. Governance of the environmental problems at macro-level. Legislation, institutional development. Standards and taxes.

- The role of state in solving environmental problems; use of different instruments in the process of governance: legislation, institutions, passive and active approaches; command-and-control, market-based, planning and other instruments. The role of state and local authorities in the process of regulation.

11. Environmental Impact Assessment as a procedure.

- Environmental assessment as an environmental policy instrument; Normative base for EIA in Bulgaria, stages; public participation in decision-making process.

12. EcoManagement at micro-level. Environmentally friendly production and products. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment).

- Environmental problems during firm production; LCA – definition and main concepts; LCA as a tool for better environment throughout all stages of the product’s life.

13. Firm organisation and management of the resources and waste. EcoLabelling.

- EcoLabelling - description of the phases, criteria; EU EcoLabelling scheme.

14. Systems for Environmental Management: ISO 14000 and EMAS.

- Use of voluntary environmental management standards – ISO 14000; EMAS - Principles, stages, elements, procedures.

15. Action plans.

- Implementation of the environmental policy at different levels; Developing of programs and plans for actions; public participation in decision-making processes.



The final assessment consists of:

  • Seminars discussions participation - 15%
  • Student written work - 15%
  • Final exam - 60%
  • Classes attendance - 10%


Reading List

A. Mandatory

Danchev, Al.,V.Pavlova, 1997. Economics of natural resources’ use (in Bulg.). NBU, Sofia.

Marinov, Hr.,1996. BioEconomics: EcoDevelopment and EcoManagement (in Bulg.). Slav Univ. Sofia

Pouhalev,G.,K.Mihova, 1995 (in Bulg.). Ecological Economics – an imperativ for XXIst century, In: Les.misal, 1/1995, Sofia.

Pouhalev,G.,K.Mihova, 1999 (in Bulg.). Sustainable Development – management paradigms. In: Management&Sust.Dev. 1-2/1999, Sofia.

Mihova,K., 2000. European Union enlargement and the environment (in Bulg.). In:Management&Sust.Dev. 1-2/2000, Sofia.

Systems for environmental management in industry (in Bulg.), 1997. Manual for application of ISO14001. Clean industry, Sofia.

Wilson,G., & R.Bryant, 1997. Environmental Management: New directions for the Twenty-First Century. UCL Press, L.

Blair, A. & D.Hitchcock, 2001. Environment and Business. Routledge, L.&N.Y.

Ekins, P., 2000. Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: The Prospects for Green Growth. Routledge, L.& N.Y.

Pearce, D., R.Kerry Turner, 1990. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Harvester Wheatsheaf, N.Y. etc.

Turner,K.R.,D.Pearce,I.Bateman, 1994. Environmental Economics: An elementary introduction. Harvester Wheatsheaf, G.B.


B. Recommended:

BOZHINOV, T.,1990. Ecology and Economics (in Bulgarian). Zemizdat, Sofia.

BROWN,L.R., Cr.Flavin, H.French, 2000,1999,1998. State of the World. The Worldwatch Institute. (in Engl. and in Bulg.)

KOSTOV, D.,1998. Forest and Natural Legislation (in Bulg.). Ciela,Sofia.

KOSTOV, E.,1996. For sustainable development of agrotourism.(in Bulg.) Blagoevgrad.

NATIONAL Strategy for biodiversity conservation in Bulgaria, Vol1,2,3.(in Bulg.). The BioDev.Program.

ACTION Program for the environment in Central and East European Countries, 1994. OECD and World Bank, REC for CEE.

RISKS of the transition,1994 (in Bulg.). Ed.N.Genov, Sofia.

Collection laws and normative acts for environment protection (in Bulg.), 1998. MoEW/PHARE, Sofia.

RISK assessment and management (Tolerability to risk) for nuclear reactors (in Bulg.),1994. Litavra, Sofia.

SUSTAINABLE development and environmental risk (in Bulg.), 1993. Ed.N.Genov, Univ.Press,Sofia.

FOUNDATIONS of Natural Resources Policy and Management, 2000. (Eds.T.Clark, A.Willard, C.Cromley). Yale Univ.Press, New Haven & L.

GRANT,W., D.Matthews & P.Newell, 2000. The Effectiveness of European Union Environmental Policy. McMillan Press Ltd.

SELMAN, P., 2000. Environmental Planning, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, L.&N.Delhi.

CLEMENT, K, 2000. Economic Development and Environmental Gain. Earthscan, L.

ENVIRONMENT for Europe. The Dobris Assessment, 1995. Stanners & Bourdeau. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 676 pp.

JACOBS, Michael, 1991. The Green Economy / Environment, Sustainable Development and the Politics of the Future. Pluto Press, London.

MEADOWS, Donella, Dennis Meadows, Jorgen Randers, 1992. Beyond the Limits: Global Collapse or a Sustainable Future. Earthscan Publ. Ltd., London.


Teaching Methodology

Course structure: Lectures, Seminars and Students’ written work.

  • Lectures are given by the main lecturer, 2 or 3 lectures are given by visiting lecturers. For the lack of textbook students need to make their own marks on lectures;
  • Seminars are on the given topics and students have to be ready for them and to participate in discussion;
  • Students in-groups of 3-4 have to prepare 3-4 pages written work on "Possibilities for environmental management of the firm "XYZ" (concrete chosen firm, analysis of the production process, environmental problems and management approaches to them).
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