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   Course Title    Ecological (Environmental) Security
Lecturer    Kim Losev
Institution    Moscow State University
Country    Russia

Security as a necessary condition for the preservation of mankind, society, state and global community. Ecological Security as part of national and common security.

Modern views at the Ecological Security as part of National Security and basis of National Ecological Politics.

Course Synopsis

The main definitions are analyzed: security, ecological security and threats, risk, evaluation of risk. History of definition "national security" and transformation of this idea: from military and power security to non-military, including ecological security. Analysis of the reason of the ecological security problem and its parts such as global ecological security, regional and local ecological security and forms of their manifestation in environment and men's health. Problem of ecological security in Russia and its institutional base is discussed. Estimations of ecological threat's transformation into ecological catastrophy. Means of secutity guarantees.

1st week Introduction. Security and Threat: History and Correlation

Security in changing world. Modernism and national states appearance; modern understanding of security. Appearance on National Security idea. National interests and security.

2nd week Main Terms and Definitions of Security

Definitions of terms: security, threat, sources of threat and risk. Evolution of definitions. Forming of threat sources. Examples of sources of threat: natural disaster, technology, humankind's activity.

3rd week Ecological Security in Context of National Safety

Ecological security and its inclusion into national security: history, reasons, military and power and non-military aspects of national security. Ecological security as priority direction among non-military aspects of national security.

4th week Main Terms and Definitions of Ecological Security

Definitions of terms of Ecological Security, Ecological Threats, Ecological Threat Sources, Ecological Risk. Evolution of definitions. Forming of ecological threat sources. Humankind as main generator of ecological threat sources.

5th week From Local to Global Ecological Crisis

Ecological crisis in past and future. Agricultural Revolution and its ecological consequences. Industrial Revolution and its ecological consequences. Transition from local and regional to global ecological crisis.

6th week Global Ecological Security

Global instability of environment, the reasons of instability. Biotical regulation of environment and men's economic activity. The process of environmental instability development and its consequences. From instability of environment to instability of life, society and civilization.

7th week Global Instability of Environment

Characteristics of instable environment in XXth century. Consequences for renewable resources of environmental instability. Consequences of environmental instability for human health.

8th week From Instability to Catastrophy

From instability of environment to catastrophy. Estimation of time intervals between violation of environmental stability to catastrophy. Other possible reasons of stability violation of environment - nuclear catastrophy, cosmic reasons, biosphere's degradation./grows old. Estimations of possibility.

9th week Regional and Local Ecological Security

History of development of local and regional ecological security: from national disaster to men-made hazards and physical, chemical and informational pollution of environment. Transboundary transition and regional ecological threat. Local ecological threat and its connection with regional. Interactivity of global, regional and local ecological threats.

10th week Global, Regional and Local Threat in the World

The state of global ecological threat in the world at the beginning of the XXIst century - quantitative characteristics and perspectives of changing. Regional ecological threat in the world at the beginning of the XX1st century and perspectives of changing. Level of ecological security in the world and its consequences for men's health.

11th week Ecological Security in Russia

Manifesting of global regional and local ecological threat in Russia including dangerous natural events and men-made hazards. History of definition "ecological threat" in Russia; its functioning in the system of national security. National security in Russia at the beginning of the XXth century, in the USSR and now. Institutional basis of ecological security in Russia.

12th week Management of Ecological Security

Objects of management of ecological security: men, society, economy, state. The main problems: demography, needs, technologies, consciousness. Ecological, social, economic optimization. Sustainable development: perspectives and limitations. Is it possible to create complete ecological security?


Duration of course 36 academic hours.


List of Books

Dictionary of Environmental Science and Technology. Andrew Porteous. 1999. ISBN 0-471-96075-6

Slow Reckoning. Tom Athanasiou. 1998. ISBN 0749-39738-1

The World Watch Reader on Global Environmental Issues.1998. ISBN 0-393-31753-6

The Problem of Nature. David Arnold. 1999. ISBN 0-631-17732-9, 0-631-19021-X

Energies. Vaclav Smil. 1999. ISBN 0-262-19410-4

Natural Resource and Environmental Economics. Roger Perman, Yue Ma, James McGilvray, Michael Common. 1999. ISBN 0-582-36876-6

The Environment: Primciples and Applications. Chris Park. 1997. ISBN 0-415-12199-x, 0-415-12200-7

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