|Course Title||Environmental impact assessment of the Countryside|
|Institution||Russian State Hydro-meteorological University|
Aim of the course:
- mastering by the students of the basic concepts, environmental impact assessment (EIA) principles, and also acquainting the basic methods of their implementation;
- to give students knowledge and skills necessary for practical work.
As the result of the course study the students ought:
Role of the course in the overall degree curriculum.
The course is closely connected to study of disciplines, such as soil ecology, hydrology, system ecology, computer science, environmental monitoring, environmental management, social ecology, environmental auditing.
The program of the course provides reading lectures, seminars, control works performed by the students. The form of the reporting: examination.
Section 1. Organisation and legal bases of EIA.
1.1. General questions of environmental impact assessment. Interrelations of various kinds of activity.
The purpose and task of the course: Interrelations and features of various kinds of activity: environmental impact assessment, environmental monitoring, environmental auditing and control.
1.2. Legislation of Russian Federation in the field of ecological examination.
Powers in the field of ecological examination of the President of Russian Federation, bodies of state authority and bodies of local self-management. The rights and duties of the customers. Objects of state ecological examination on the different level.
1.3. Public ecological examination.
Objects of public ecological examination. The rights of the citizens and public organisations in the field of ecological examination. Financing of ecological examination.
1.4. Ecological requirements.
The requirements of the ecosystem approach. The ecological requirements of accommodation, designing, construction, reconstruction, commissioning of the enterprises and other objects. The ecological requirements of operation of the enterprises, structures, other objects and performance of other activity. The ecological requirements on environment protection for designing highways.
1.5. International experience in organising EIA.
General features of the mechanism of environmental impact assessment in the economically advanced countries. Presence of the legally fixed norms in the given area. Distinctions in the procedures used in the advanced countries and in Russian Federation.
Section 2. Principles and methods of EIA.
2.1. General scientific and system principles.
Inventory of natural resources. The technological approaches. The basic laws, principles and rules of scientific examination. Group of the optimality laws. Group of the limiting factors. Group of organisational and psychological restrictions.
2.2. The cycle of the project and process of EIA.
EIA: policy and principles. EIA and cycle of the project performance. Interrelations between EIA and cycles of the project. Classification of the projects.
2.3. Acceptance criteria for the projects classification.
Type and scale, site, vulnerability of an environment elements, scale and character of influence. A survey slip. Preparation for an. ecological evaluation. Realisation of an ecological evaluation. Check the results and distribution of the ecological evaluation conclusion under the project. The report on an ecological estimation. Completion of the project and the results estimation.
2.4. Methods of estimations on natural environment influence. 2.5.
The methods of the material balances. The method of the verifying lists. The method of control sheets. The method of matrixes. The method of networks. The method of overlapping. Specific advantages of these methods and restriction. Modelling.
2.6. Criteria of an estimation on an environment influence.
Criteria of estimations a condition of atmospheric air, surface waters, geological environment, soil-fauna and flora. Social and economic criteria, estimation of efficiency of environment - related activities.
EIA of New Developments in the Countryside
3.1. EIA, carried out for region or branch scale
The problems of global character and problems concerning various kinds of economic activity, which are considered during EIA: pollution atmosphere, international contracts and agreements on the environment protection and natural resources, international water ways. Common problems for different branches of economy: a biological variety, areas of nature reserve, water-marsh areas, economic development of coastal zone, protection and use of ground and water resources.
3.2. Ecological problems connected to development of agriculture.
3.2.1. Consequence of clearing the new areas under agriculture use. Loss of natural resources (water-marsh areas, woods, etc.), soil erosion, reduction of soil efficiency, disappearance of kinds, damage or destruction of wild animals inhabit places.
3.2.2. Consequence of growing manufacture on available agricultural ground.
Condensation of soil by heavy machines. Acceleration of erosion. Negative consequences of exceeding norms of fertilisers and pesticide. Consequences of drainage, increase acids and salts of soil. Consequences of increasing animal industries and cattle breeding. Consequences of road constructions.
3.2.3. Problem of sustainable development. Estimation of economic, social and ecological costs connected to long-term measures on the project realisation.
3.3. Privatisation and ecological estimation: problems and approaches.
Problems connected with the period prior privatisation. Problems connected with the period after a privatisation. Classification of private enterprises according influence on the environment. The analysis of influences of private enterprises on the environment: the basic reasons of concern. Especially environmental impact assessment at a privatisation.
3.4. Applied questions of EIA of the Countryside.
Definition of priority polluting substances and sources. The analysis of atmosphere pollution sources. The analysis of surface water pollution sources. Bases of air pollution account. Definition of the sizes sanitary - protective zones and minimal heights of emissions. Account of surface water pollution. Bases of account the soil pollution. The ecological passport structure of the agricultural enterprise.