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   Course Title    Ecology and Environment
Lecturer    Erkin Boronbaev
Institution    Kyrgyz Architecture - Construction Institute
Country    Kyrgyzstan


I. Aim of the course

The main aim of the course is for students to learn the foundations of ecology and environment from the position of engineer tasks of the speciality.

 

II. Role of the course in the overall degree curriculum

The course is based on the acquired knowledges and skills of the students in such courses as "chemistry", "physics", "highest mathimetics", ""Information tehnologies and simulation", "History" and "Philosophy". As a result, the base for learning is the engineering disciplines from the position of local, regional and world problems of the environment.

The course is directly connected with such main courses of the overall degree curriculum as "Space Heating", "Ventilation", "Air Conditioning", "Heat Generating Installations", "Heat Supply, Gas Supply" etc. Interconnection of each module of this course with modules of courses studied before and after, are given in the Attachment 1.

 

III. Methods used

I use the generally accepted teaching methods of active learning of the lecture materials on the base of involving students in the brief discussions, organisation of the problems from practice, and returning connections to the learning by students. Slides and handouts are used.

Holding discussions are implemented by the methods of "brain attack", for instance, questions on draft of independent elaborations (see Attachment 1) of every student.

Using of computers is implemented in the computer laboratory, at first in the form of practice lesson for familiarising students with the program and then independent attendence of students.

Case studies precede the total excursions of students to the engineer objects on environment.

 

IV. Course content

A week-by-week division of the course is in compliance to its chapters. The course content is presented here in two forms, the second of which (Attachment 1) is developed by the author and used in our university.

Daily Activities

Week 1:

Topic: Introduction. Objectives and tasks of Ecology and Environment. Major problems.

Readings:

[ 1 ], pages 15 – 39;

[ 2 ], pages 4 – 12.

Questions:

Introduction. Subject and tasks of ecology. Major stages of ecological science development. Ecology in the system of natural sciences. Main directions in Ecology. Modern ecological problems. Main terms of ecology.

Week 2:

Topic: Ecology systems. Structure and protection of biosphere: atmosphere, hydrosphere and litosphere.

Readings:

[ 1 ], pages 40 – 53, 98 – 119;

[ 3 ], pages 55 – 64.

Questions:

Ecosystems. Organisation and functioning of the systems if the different range: population, biocenosis (association), biogeocenosis (ecosystem) and biosphere. Biosphere and structure of biosphere-atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Study of V.I.Vernadki about biosphere. Concept of neosphere.

Week 3:

Topic: Circulation of the matters: water, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, natrogen and sulphur. Human influence to the circulation.

Readings:

[ 1 ], pages 108 – 119.

Questions:

Circulation of matters in the nature. Large geological circuit: circulation of solid matters and water. Small biogenic circuit: circulation of water, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen and sulphur. Influence of humanity to the circulation processes.

Week 4:

Topic: Ecology laws. Ecological distasters: reasons and consequences (Aral sea, Chernobyl).

Readings:

[ 1 ], pages 165 – 170.

Questions:

Ecology laws. Law of tolerance. Law of minimum. Barry Kommener’s four major laws of ecology. Modern scales of the humanity influence to the nature. Ecological disasters: reasons and consequences. Ecological disaster of Aral sea. Emergency at the Chernobyl APS.

Week 5:

Topic: Energy balance of the Earth and change of climate. Traditional and renewable energy

resources.

Readings:

[ 4 ], pages 283 – 313, 293 – 409;

[ 6 ], pages 1 – 9;

[ 5 ], pages 1 – 72.

Questions:

Energy balance of the Earth. The main energy resources: classification, influence of their use to the environment state. Traditional energetics. Solar and wind energy, geothermal energy. Energy of high tides and low tides.

Week 6:

Topic: Atmosphere and vital activities. Natural and artificial resources of pollution. Acidic rains, protection of the ozone layer. Enhancement of "greenhouse effect". Ways of protection.

Readings:

[ 2 ], pages 13 – 27;

[ 3 ], pages 22 – 33;

[ 6 ], pages 10 – 45.

Questions:

Atmosphere and vital activities of living beings. Natural and artificial resources of atmosphere pollution. Classification of pollution. Acidic rains, protection of the ozone layer. Destruction of "greenhouse effect". Ways of protection.

Week 7:

Topic: Water resources and their protection. Resources of pollution: pestecides, oil products, heavy metal, radionuclears, mineral manures. Ocean and planet life.

Readings:

[ 1 ], pages 236 – 244;

[ 2 ], pages 27 – 34, 153 - 177

Questions:

Water resources and their protection. Resources of pollution:. Ocean and planet life.

Water resources of the Earth. The problem of potable water deficit. The resources of natural water pollution. Pollution of ponds ???? by pestecides, oil products, heavy metal, radionuclears, mineral manures. Pollution of ponds by mineral fertilizers and their damage. Pollution of natural water by sea and river ships. Significance of the World ocean in the life of planet.

Week 8:

Topic: Land resources and their protection. Pollution by solid wastes, heavy metals, pestecides, dioxides, oil products and etc. Aciding of soil.

Readings:

[ 1 ], pages 225 – 236;

[ 2 ], pages 39 – 55.

Questions:

Economical and ecological problems of the mineral resources using. Land resources of the planet. Agricultural use of lands and its consequence. Consequences of the pestecides. Aciding of the soil. The reasons of the lands spoiling. Pollution of the lad by solid wastes, heavy metals, pestecides, dioxides, oil products. Methods of their removal.

Week 9:

Topic: Flora and fauna and its protection. Importance of forests, protected areas. Red Book.

Media of men life. Consequences of large population.

Readings:

[ 1 ], pages 261 – 266;

[ 1 ], pages 179 – 204.

Questions:

Bioresources. Flora resources. Forest. Importance of the forest in the life of living beings and biosphere in total. Use of forest in agriculture. Water distribution function of forest. Modern influence scales to the flora. Ecological consequences of flora resources exhaustion. Disappearance of the plants as a result of biosphere pollution. Fauna resources. Decreasing of biovariety. Specifically protected natural areas: nature reserves, national parks, nature monuments. Red Book.

Social ecology. Human evolution. Ecological niches of man, cities. Population. Demographical transition. Modern anthropogenesis and character of people.

Week 10:

Topic: Nature and economy. Assessment of influence of agricultural activities to the nature.

Environment and man health.

Readings:

[ 1 ], pages 205 – 216, 294 – 304;

[ 3 ], pages 285 – 291;

[ 8 ], pages 1 – 9.

Questions:

Nature and economy. Principles of economical evaluation of nature resources. Assessment of the economy activities influence to the nature. New concept of the economical development and territorial organisation of society.

Man as biological specie. Interconnection of the man and biotic and abiotic media. Environment and man’s health. Space factors of influence to the man’s organism. Chemical compound of natural systems and man’s health.

Week 11:

Topic: International collaboration on Environment. Programmes of United Nations.

Stockholm, New York, Rio-de-Janeiro, Kiot and other decisions.

Readings:

[ 9 ], all pages

[ 10 ], all pages

[ 11 ], all pages

[ 12 ], all pages

[ 13 ], all pages

[ 14 ], all pages

Questions:

Major tendencies of the society development in the conditions of anthropogenetic change of nature conditions. International cooperation in the field of ecology. The program of UN on Environment (????). Stokcholm declaration on Environment. Kiot Protocol.

The Global system of monitoring. Conference in Rio-de-Janeiro. Experience of countries in the decision of ecological problems. Social and political struggle and ecological movement. Ecological entirety of the world.

Week 12:

Topic: . National plan on Environment of Kyrgyzstan and its international collaboration.

Nature protection legislation. Law "on Environment", Juridical responsibility.

Readings: [ 15 ], all pages.

Questions:

Ecological movement in Kyrgyzstan. National plan of environment of Kyrgyz Republic. The problems of nature protection in Kyrgyzstan. Specifically protected areas of Kyrgyzstan. International cooperation of Kyrgyz Republic in the field of environment.

Juridical foundations of nature protection in Kyrgyzstan. Foundations of the nature protection legislation. Law of Kyrgyz Republic "about environment". Right of citizens for favourable environment. Juridical responsibility for infringement of the legislation about environment.

Week 13:

Topic: Means of prevention of biosphere pollution: atmosphere, hydrosphere, litosphere.

Purification devices and apparatus. Assessment of influence of human activity to the

state of Environment.

Readings:

[ 1 ], pages 406 – 420;

[ 2 ], pages 57 – 78;

[ 8 ], pages 9 – 28.

Questions:

The main means of preventing of biosphere pollution. Protection of atmosphere, hydrosphere and litosphere. Main purification devices and apparatus. Assessment of influence of economy activity of man to the state of Environment.

 

Appendix 1

Discipline code,

Module designation,

Lecture number

Contents of thematic modules

(lectures material)

Knowledge

Skill

For studing of the module disc

Supported on the module disc.

On the given chapter

hours

Code

 

 

 

 

 

Code

Code

lk

lb

pr

kp

2.5

2.5

1

Introduction. Objectives and tasks of Ecology and Environment. Major problems.

K4

-

4.6

4.17

-

2

0

0

0

 

1

2

Ecology systems. Structure and protection of biosphere: atmosphere, hydrosphere and litosphere.

K9

-

4.6

2.4

2

0

0

0

 

1

3

Circulation of the patterns: water, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, natrogen and sulphur. Human influence to the circulation

K9

-

4.17

2.3

2.4

2

0

0

0

 

1

4

Ecology laws. Ecological distasters: reasons and consequences (Aral sea, Chernobyl).

K4

K9

S4

4.17

-

2

0

2

0

 

1

5

Energy balance of the earth and change of climate. Traditional and renewable energy resources.

K16

S5

S17

4.15

2.3

2

0

2

0

 

1

6

Atmosphere and vital activities. Natural and artificial resources of pollution. Acidic rains, protection of the ozone layer. Enhancement of "greenhouse effect". Ways of protection.

K16

K13

S4

S18

4.6

4.8

4.10

2.3

2

0

4

0

 

1

7

Water resources and their protection. Resources of pollutuion: pestecides, oil products, heavy metal, radionuclears, mineral manures. Ocean and planet life.

K4

K16

S18

3.9

2.3

2

0

2

0

2.5

2.5

2

8

Land resources and their protection. Pollution by solid wastes, heavy metals, pestecides, dioxides, oil products and etc. Aciding of soil.

K13

 

S5

-

2.3

2.4

2

0

2

0

 

2

9

Flora and fauna and its protection. Importance of forests, protected areas. Red Book. Media of men life. Consequences of large population.

K4

K16

-

4.6

-

1

0

0

0

 

2

9

Flora and fauna and its protection. Importance of forests, protected areas. Red Book. Media of men life. Consequences of large population.

K4

-

-

-

1

0

0

0

 

2

10

Nature and economy. Assessment of influence of agricultural activities to the nature. Environment and man health.

K16

S18

4.14

-

2

0

2

0

 

2

11

International collaboration on Environment. Programmes of United Nations. Stockholm, New York, Rio-de-Janeiro, Keat and other decisions.

K4

-

4.6

-

2

0

0

0

 

2

12

National plan on Environment of Kyrgyzstan and ots international collaboration. Nature protection legislation. Law "on Environment", Juridical responsibility.

K16

-

4.17

-

2

0

0

0

 

2

13

Means of prevention of biosphere pollution: atmosphere, hydrosphere, litosphere. Purification devices and apparatus. Assessment of influence of human activity to the state of Environment.

K16

 

S41

4.6

4.8

4.9

4.10

2.3

2

0

2

0

 

Appendix 2

List of the practice tasks presented to the students for self – prepared papers on the course

"Ecology and Environment"

  1. Dilution of waste water in rivers.
  2. Determination of the necessary level of the waste water purification.
  3. Calculation of the combustion products exhausts in the boilers.
  4. Calculation of cyclones.
  5. Control of the atmosphere quality. Diffusion of the hot gas exhausts in atmosphere.
  6. Diffusion of the cold gas exhausts in atmosphere. Determination of allowance exhausts.
  7. Determination of the necessary height of the chimney.
  8. Calculation of the effectiveness of measures on the environment and rational use of the natural resources.



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