- Aim of the course: To gain understanding of the linkages between
undergoing changes of the state of environment and policy responses in
the countries adjacent to Russia to discern the key priorities for
action in the near future.
- Role of the course in the overall degree curriculum: The revised
course is a part of the course "Environmental Policy" for the 4th-year
students of the Department of World Physical Geography and Geoecology,
Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University. This course is forwarded
by the introduction on basic concepts of environmental policy and
characteristics of environmental policy of Russia and European Union.
- Methods used: This course will be run as series of lectures and
seminars on detailed case studies concerning environmental policy of
different states of EU, former CIS, Mongolia, China and Korea, in total
13 states. There are no practicals, weekly 2 hours seminars following
each lecture topic are proposed.
- Course content
- Post-Soviet space: An introduction to the background of major
environmental issues since 1991. Positive and negative aspects of
environmental policy in the former Soviet Union. Social and economic
transformations, political changes in CIS republics, Mongolia and China.
Shift from centralized economy and command-and-control methods to market
economy and its impact on state of environment.
- Outline of most crucial problems linked with environment and
resources, i.e. reduction of industrial activities in CIS countries,
resource export, radioactive wastes import as well as major
environmental issues: degradation of land and water resources, loss of
forests and biodiversity, industrial pollution, etc. in geographical
context. Countries with heavy, medium and little toll on environment.
Emergence of transboundary issues (Kolsky peninsular – Finland, China –
Russian Far East, etc).
- Regional multilateral environmental agreements of the countries
bordering Russia. Convention on the protection of marine environment of
the Baltic Sea (Helsinki, 1992) and activities of the Baltic Marine
Environment Protection Commission. Convention on protection and
management of transboundary streams and lakes (1992). Black Sea
Environment Programme (1996, 1997). Negotiation process on the status of
the Caspian sea.
- Policy responses of different countries. North-western countries
(Norway, Finland, Baltic States). Role of Espoo Convention on EIA in a
transboundary context (Espoo, Finland, 1997). Adopting legislation and
institutions of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to EU standards. Major
Programs and activities in the region.
- Ukraine. Law "On the Protection of environment" (1991) as the basis
of environmental policy. Development of laws and regulations since 1991.
National Environment Action Plan. National Program of improvement of the
state of environment of the Dnepr basin, 1997. Project of "Concept of
sustainable development of Ukraine". Functions and activities of the
Ministry of nature protection and nuclear security of the Ukraine.
Economic instruments. Cleaner production incentives. Role of NGOs.
- Republic of Belarus. Legal basis of environmental policy: laws "On
the Protection of environment" (1992) and "On national EIA procedure"
(1993). Development of the "Environmental Code of Belarus". Functions
and activities of the Ministry of natural resources and environment
protection. Economic instruments (pollution charges, charges for overuse
of natural resources, etc.). National Strategy for sustainable
development, 1997. Public participation, NGOs.
- Caucasian Republics: Georgia and Azerbaijan. Law "On the Protection
of environment" of Georgia (1996). Functions and activities of the
Ministry of environment protection and natural resources of Georgia.
Development of National Environment Action Plan in Georgia and changes
in environmental institutions. Activities of the Azerbaijan State
Committee for the environment. Political and environmental issues raised
from the management of shared resources of the Caspian Sea (oil,
- Republic of Kazakhstan. Legal basis of environmental policy: laws
"On Environment Protection" (1995) and "On the Environmental Expertise
in the Republic of Kazakhstan" (1997). Activities of the Ministry of
ecology and bioresources of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Economic and
financial instruments, public participation. Joint Russian-Kazakhstan
environmental issues (shared river basins, Baikonur site).
- Mongolia, China, Korea. Transboundary issues in North-East Asia.
"China’s Agenda-21" and environmental policy in China. Environmental
Protection Law, 1997. Standards of environmental quality in China.
Economic instruments and command-and-control regulations. Changes in
environmental policy of Mongolia since 1991. User-pay principles in
resource use in Mongolia. NGO in Mongolia
- Donor environmental commitments to Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Role of assistance programmes for countries under transition (TACIS) in
financing environmental actions under lack of traditional sources of
support (state budgets). Role of Russia in the regional environmental
negotiations and agreements.
Problems of friendly environmental development of the
countries with transition economy (2001). Moscow: Moscow State
Global Environment Outlook 2000 (1999). UNEP, London
Evaluation of progress in developing and implementing
action programmes in Central and Eastern European New Independent States
(1998). OECD, Paris
Mnatsakanian R. (1992). Environmental Legacy of the
Former Soviet Republics. Center for Human Ecology, University of
Use of economic instruments in environmental policy in
Central and Eastern Europe (1994). REC, Szentendre
Emerging Asia: Changes and Challenges (1997). ADB.
Environmental Protection in the Ukraine 1994-95 (1997).
National Strategy of Sustainable Development of the
Republic of Belarus (1997). Minsk
Geoinformation and Geoecological Studies in CIS Countries
Guseinova F. State of the Environment in Azerbaijan
(1997). Report prepared by the Green Movement of Azerbaijan in 1997.
Introduction to China’s Agenda 21 (1994). Beijing
National Report in the State of Environment of the
Republic of Kazakhstan in 1996 (1997). Ministry of ecology and
State ot the Environment: Country Overview – Belarus
TACIS (1998). Ministry of Natural resources and Environment Protection of
State ot the Environment and Activities in Ukraine
(1994). Ministry of Nature Protection,