POLITICAL PARTIES AND REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY
Gábor Tóka
Fall 1995
Department of Political Science
CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY


Course Description

The course reviews the major theoretical propositions, research programs and methods concerning the development of political parties and their functions in representative democracies. Special attention will he devoted to the prospects and limits to constitutional engineering in making electoral democracy effective and consolidated. The impact of election laws and the broader institutional framework on party systems. party governmentness, and the size. stability and program of government coalitions will receive detailed examination.

Students' performance will he evaluated on the basis of in-class tests (30%) and activity (10%), their written homework (30%) and final essay (30%).

First topic.

Some basic concepts and their normative environment: direct democracy, representative democracy, majority rule, unanimity rule, minority veto.
Requested readings:
Reeve, Andrew, and Alan Ware, 1992. Electoral Systems. London: Routledge, pp. 17-43.
Steiner, Jürg, 1991. European Democracies. New York: Longman, 2nd edition, pp. 173-182.
Coleman, James S., 1992. "Democracy in Permanently Divided Systems." In: Reexamining Democracy, ed. by Gary Marks and Larry Jay Diamond. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, pp. 17-26.

Second topic.
The positive and normative properties of majority rule and the paradox of voting: strategic voting under majoritarian electoral procedures.
Requested readings:
Riker, William H., 1982. Liberalism Against Populism: A Confrontation Between the Theory of Democracy and the Theory of Social Choice. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press, pp. 1-3, 4-14, 21-65.

Third topic
The manifest functions, genesis, and autonomy of political parties; Party government and its major alternatives
Requested readings:
Duverger, Maurice, (1951) 1964. Political Parties. Their Organization and Activity in the Modern Slate. London: Methuen, 2nd revised English edition. Introduction. The Origin of Parties, pp. xxiii-xxxvii.
Katz, Richard S., 1987. "Party Government and Its Alternatives." In: Party Government. European and American Experiences, ed. by Richard S. Katz. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 1-26.
Fiorina, Morris P., 1987. "Party Government in the United States: Diagnosis and Prognosis." In: Party Government: European and American Experiences, ed. by Richard S. Katz. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 270-300.

Fourth topic.
Political parties and democractic consolidation.
Requested readings:
Mainwaring, Scott, and Timothy R. Scully, 1994. "Introduction: Party Systems in Latin America." In: Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America, ed. by Scott Mainwaring and Timothy R. Scully. Stanford, CA.: Stanford University Press, pp. 1-34.
Mair, Peter, 1993. "How, and Why, Newly-Emerging Party Systems May Differ from Established Party Systems?" Paper prepared for delivery at the conference on "The Emergence of New Party Systems and Transitions to Democracy", Centre of Mediterranean Studies, University of Bristol, 17-19 September 1993.

Fifth topic.
Democracy inside the political parties: The iron law of oligarchy.
Requested readings:
Michels, Robert, (1911) 1962. Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy. New York: Free Press. (parts)
Gallagher, Tom, Michael Laver, and Peter Mair, 1992. Representative Government in Western Europe. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 119-141.

Sixth topic.
The catch-all and cartell party themes.
Requested readings:
Kirchheimer, Otto, 1966. "The Transformation of the Western European Party Systems." In: Political Parties and Political Development, ed. by Joseph LaPalombara, and Myron Weiner. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 177-200.
Katz, Richard S., Peter Mair, 1995. "Changing Models of Party Organization and Party Democracy: The Emergence of the Cartel Party." Party Polities 1: 5-28.

Seventh topic.
Electoral arrangements and models of political representation.
Requested readings:
Powell, G. Bingham Jr., 1989. "Constitutional Design and Citizen Electoral Control." Journal of Theoretical Polities 1 (2): 107- 130.
Duverger, Maurice, 1984. "What Is the Best Electoral System?" In: Choosing an Electoral System: Issues and Alternatives, ed. by Arend Lijphart and Bernd Grofman. New York: Praeger, pp. 31-40.
Lakeman, Enid, 1984. "The Case for Proportional Representation." In: Choosing an Electoral System: Issues and Alternatives, ed. by Arend Lijphart and Bernd Grofman. New York: Praeger, pp. 41-52.
Lijphart, Arend, 1984. "Trying to Have the Best of Both Worlds: Semi-Proportional and Mixed Systems." In: Choosing an Electoral System: Issues and Alternatives, ed. by Arend Lijphart and Bernd Grofman. New York: Praeger, pp. 207-215.

Eighth topic.
Government formation.
Requested readings:
Steiner, Jürg, 1991. European Democracies. New York: Longman, 2nd edition, pp. 109-133.
Gallagher, Tom, Michael Laver, and Peter Mair, 1992. Representative Government in Western Europe. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 173-211.

Ninth topic.
Polarized pluralism in theory and practice.
Requested readings:
Sartori, Giovanni, 1990. "A Typology of Party Systems." In: The West European Party System, ed. by Peter Mair. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 91-138. (Abridged version of chapter 5, 6, and 9 of G. S., 1976. Parties and Party System. A Framework for Analysis. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . )
Bartolini, Stefano, 1984. "Institutional Constraints and Party Competition in the French Party System." West European Politics 7: 103-127.

Tenth topic.
The spatial model of party competition: implications, critics, alternatives and applications.
Requested readings:
Kitschelt, Herbert, 1992. "The Formation of Party Systems in East Central Europe." Politics and Society 20: 7-50 (parts of the text, pp. 10-50).

Eleventh topic.
Segmented electoral markets and party fragmentation: the contributions of cleavage theory.
Requested readings:
Lipset, Seymour M. and Stein Rokkan, 1967. "Cleavage Structures, Party Systems and Voter Alignments. Introduction" In: Party Systems and Voter Alignments. Cross-National Perspectives, ed. by Seymour M. Lipset, and Stein Rokkan. New York: The Free Press, pp. 1-64. Abridged version in The West European Party System, ed. by Peter Mair. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 91-138.

Twelfth topic.
Empirical analyses of political representation.
Requested readings:
Miller, Warren, and Donald E. Stokes, 1963. "Constituency Influence in Congress." American Political Science Review 57: 45-56. Reprinted in Angus Campbell, Philip E. Converse, Warren E. Miller, and Donald Stokes, 1966. Elections and the Political Order. New York: John Wiley, pp. 351-372.
Bialecki, Ireneusz, and Bogdan Mach, 1992. "The Social and Economic Orientations of Polish Legislators Against a Background of the View of Polish Society." The Polish Sociological Bulletin 97: 167-186.
Petry, Francois, 1991. "Fragile Mandate: Party Programmes and Public Expenditures in the French Fifth Republic." European Journal of Political Research 20: 149-171.
Brooks, Joel L., 1990. "The Opinion-Policy Nexus in Germany." Public Opinion Quarterly 54: 508-529.



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Modified: July, 1996

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