MODELS OF PERSISTENCE AND CHANGE IN MODERN PARTY SYSTEMS: PARTY STRATEGIES DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD
Gabor Toka
Term: Fall 1993
Department of Political Science, Budapest
CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY



Course Summary:

The course provides an introduction into the main theoretical propositions about the historical developm ent in the functions and characteristics of political parties in representative democracies, and the determinants and impact of party system format, party organization, and party-voter linkages.

The lectures will be complemented with a weekly seminar discussing some further literature connected with the topic of the lectures and analyzing the development of East Central European party systems.

Students' performance will be evaluated on the basis of written tests (60%), active participation in the discussions (10%), and a short essay (30%) on the applicability of the conceptual tools discussed during the course in the analysis of one or more East Central European party systems.

Syllabus

First topic. Introduction 1: Some Basic Concepts and their Normative Background (democracy, representative democracy, preconditions of democracy, democratic stability, democratic legitimacy)
Requested Readings:
llanson, Russell L., 1989. 'Democracy." In: Political Innovations and Conceptual Change. ed.Terence Ball, James Far, and Russell L. Hanson Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 68-89.
Karl, Terry Lynn, 1990. "Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America." Comparative Politics 23: 1-21.
Excerpts from pp. 291-294 of Juán Rial, 1991. Transitions in Latin America on the threshold of the 1990's.'International Social Science Journal 43: 285-300.
Further reading
Przeworski, Adam, 1991. Democracy and the Market. New York: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 1 (pp. 10-40). Copy in CEUL.

Second topic. The Manifest Functions, Genesis, and Autonomy of Political Parties.
Requested readings:
Schattschneider, Elmer E., 1942. Parry Government. New York: Rinehart & Co. Reprint edition, 1977, Westport, Con.: Greenwood Press, pp. 18-19, 30-39, 44-47.
Duverger, Maurice, (1951) 1964. Political Parties. Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. London: Methuen, 2nd Revised English edition. Introduction: The Origin of Parties, pp. xxiii-xxxvii.
Neurnann, Sigmund, 1990. "The Party of Democratic Integration.- (Excerpts from S. N., 1956. "Towards a Comparative Study of Political Parties.'') In: The West European Party System. ed. Peter Mair. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 46-49.
Katz, Richard S., 1987. "Party Government and Its Alternatives." In: Party Government: European and American Experiences, ed. Richard S. Katz. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1-26.

Third topic. Representative Government Without Party Government: the United States. The Debate About Presidentialism vs. Parliamentary Government.
Requested readings:
Amenta, Edwin, and Theda Skocpol, 1989. "Taking Exception: Explaining the Distinctiveness of American Public Policies in the Last Century"- In: The Comparative History of Public Policy, ed. Francis G. Castles. Cambridge: Polity Press, 292-333 (parts).
Prewitt, Kenneth, 1970. "Political Ambitions, Volunteerism, and Electoral Accountability."American Political Science Review 61: 5-17.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, David Brady, and Morris Fiorina, 1992. "The Vanishing Marginals and Electoral Responsiveness." British Journal of Political Science 22: 21-38.
Further readings:
Klingemann, Hans-Dieter and Martin P. Wattenberg, 1992. 'Decaying Versus Developing Party Systems: A Comparison of Party Images in the United States and West Germany." 8ritish Journal of Political Science 22:131-149.
Burnham, Walter Dean, 1970. Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Fourth topic. Segmented Electoral Markets and Party Fragmentation: the Contributions of Cleavage Theory.
Requested readings:
Lipset, Seemour M. and Stein Rokkan, 1967. "CIeavage Structures, Party Systems and Voter Alignments. Introduction" In: Party Systems and Voter Alignments. Cross-National Perspectives, ed. Seernour M. Lispet, and Stein Rokkan. New York: The Free Press, 1-64. Abridged version in The West European Party System, ed. Peter Mair. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 91-138.
Further readings:
Hagtvet, Bernt, and Stein Rokkan, 1980. "The Conditions of Fascist Victory Towards a Geoeconomic-Geopolitical Model for the Explanation of Violent Breakdowns of Competitive Mass Politics." In: Who Were the Fascists? Social Roots of European Fascism, ed. Stein Ugelvik Larsen, Bernt Hagtvet and Jan Petter Mykebust. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget, 131 -152.
Mair, Peter, 1991. "(Electoral) Markets and (Stable) States." In: Markets Against the State. ed. Micheal Moran, and Maurice Wright. London: Macmillan. Copy in CEUL.
Körösényi, András, 1992. 'The Revival of the Past or a New Beginning?" In: Post-Communist Transition. Emerging Pluralism in Hungary, ed. András Bozóki, András Körösényi, and George Schöpflin. London: Frances Pinter. Copy in CEUL.
Waller Michael, 1991. "Groups, Interests and Political Aggregation in East Central Europe." Journal of Communist Studies 7: 128-147.
Lipset, Seymmour h11., 1970. "Political Cleavages in 'Developed' and 'Emerging' Polities." In: Mass Politics. Studies in Political Sociology, ed. Erik Allardt, and Stein Rokkan. New York: The free Press, 23-44. Copy in SZEK.
Dalton, Russell J., Scott C. Flanagan and Paul Allen Beck, eds. 1984. Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Realignment or Dealignment? Princeton: Princeton University Press. Copy in CEUL.
Gallagher, Torn, Michael Laver, and Peter Mair, 1992. Representative Government in Western Europe. New York : McGraw-Hill, pp. 35-86, 90-91, 97-115. COPY in CEUL.

Fifth topic. Models of Political Representation
Requested readings:
Powell, G. Bingham Jr., 1989. "Constitutional Design and Citizen Electoral Control. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 1 (2): 107 - 130.
Bialecki, Ireneusz, and Bogdan Mach, 1992 "The Social and Economic Orientations of Polish Legislators Against a Background of the View of Polish Society." The Polish Sociological Bulletin 97: 167-186.
Further readings:
Holmberg, Sören, 1989. "Political Representation in Sweden." Scandinavian Political Studies 12: 1 -36.
Dalton, Russel J., 1985. "Political Parties and Political Representation. Party Supporters and Party Elites in Nine Nations." Comparative Political Studies 1985: 267-299.
Miller, Warren E., 1970. "Majority Rule and the Representative System of Government" In: Mass Politics. Studies in Political Sociology, ed. Erik Allardt, and Stein Rokkan. New York: The Free Press, 284-311. Copy in SZEK.
Bartels, Larry M., 1991. "Constituency Opinion and Congressional Policy Making: The Reagan Defense Buildup." American Political Science Review 85: 457-474.
Brooks, Joel L., 1990. '"The Opinion-Policy Nexus in Germany." Public Opinion Quarterly 54: 508-529
Petry, Francois, 1991. "Fragile Mandate: Party Programs and Public Expenditures in the French Republic." European Journal of Political Research 20: 149-171.

Sixth topic. The spatial model of party competition: its implications, critics, and alternatives
Requested readings:
Kitschelt, Herbert, 1992. "The Formation of Party Systems in East Central Europe." Politics and Society 20: 7-50, parts of the text, pp. 10-50.
Further readings:
Stokes, Donald E., 1963. "Spatial Models of Party Competition." American Political Science Review, 57: 368-377. Reprinted in Angus Campbell, Philip E. Converse, Warren E.J.Willer, and Donald Stokes, 1966. Elections and the Political Order. New York: John W!ley, 161179
Rabinowitz, George, and Stuart Elaine Macdonald,1989. "A Directional Theory of Issue Voting." American Political Science Review 83: 93-121.
Budge, lan, and Dennis J. Farlie, 1983. Explaining and Predicting Elections. Issue Effects and Party Strategies in Twenty-three Democracies. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Robertson, David Bruce, 1976. A Theory of Party Competition. London and New York: John Wiley. Copy in CEUL.
Budge, lan, David Robertson, and Derek Heari (eds.), 1987. Ideology, Strategy and Party Change: Spatial Analysis of Post-War Election Programs in 19 Democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Copy in SZEK. . ;
Downs, Anthony, 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper. Copy in CEUL.
Budge, lan, and Dennis J. Fairlie, 1977. Voting and Party Competition: A Theoretical Critique and Synthesis Applied to Surveys from Ten Democracies. London and New York: Wiley., copy in PK.

Seventh topic. Polarized Pluralism in Theory and Practice
Requested readings:
Sartori, Giovanni. 1990. "A Typology of Party Systems. In: The West European Party System, ed. Peter Mair. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 91-138. (Abridged version of chapter 5, 6, and 9 of G. S., 1976. Parties and Party System. A framework for Analysis. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)
Further readings:
Sartori, Giovanni, 1976. Parties and Party System. A Framework for Analysis. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.) Copy in CEUL
Linz, Juan J., 1978. "Crisis, Breakdown and Reequilibration." In: The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes, ed. Juan J. Linz, and Alfred Stepan- Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Vol. 1, 3-124. Copy in CEUL.
Batolini, Stefano, 1984. "Institutional Constraints and Party Competition in the French Party System."- West European Politics 7: 103-127.
Daalder, lvo H., 1983. "The Italian Party System in Transition: The End of Polarized Pluralism?" West European Politics 6: 216-236.
Chiarini, Roberto, 1991. 'The Movimento Sociale Italiano': A Historical Profile.' In: NeoFascism in Europe, ed. Luciano Cheles, Ronnie Ferguson, and Michalina Vaughan. New York: Longman, 19-42.
Ignazi, Piero, and Colette Ysmal, 1992. "New and Old Extreme Right-wing Parties. The French Front National and the Italian Movimento Sociale." European Journal of Political Research 22: 101 -121.
Fennema, Meindert, 1988. "Conclusions." In: Communist Parties of Western Europe. Decline or Adaptation, ed. Michael Waller, and Meindert Fennema. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 244-265.
Powell, G. Bingham Jr., 1986. "Extremist Parties and Political Turmoil: Two Puzzles." American Journal of Political Science, 30:357-378.
Jasiewicz, Krzysztof, 1992. "From Solidarity to Fragmentation." Journal of Democracy, 3, No. 2, 55-69.

Eighth topic. The Impact of Electoral Systems
Requested readings
Lijphart. Arend, 1990. "The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws, 1945-85."- American Political/ Science Review 84: 481-496.
Kitschelt, Helbenf 1991. "Explaining the Choice of Electoral Laws in New Democracies: The Experience of Southem and Eastern Europe. Paper submitted to the Eighth International Conference of Europeanists organized by the Council for European Studies, Chicago, March 27-29, 1992.
Further readings:
Gallasher, Tom, Michael Laver, and Peter Mair, 1992 Representative Government in Western Europe. New York: McGraw-Hill, 145-171.
Blais, André, and R. K. Carty, 1991. "The Psychological Impact of Electoral Laws: Measuring Duverger's Elusive Factor.'"British Journal of Political Science 21: 79-93.
Harrnel, Robert, and John D. Robertson, 1985. "Formation and Success of New Parties. A Cross-National Analysis." International Political Science Review 11: 403 422.
Taagepara, Rein, and Matthew Soberg Shugart, 1989- Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. Copy in CEUL

Ninth topic. Government Formation and Public Policy Outcomes
Requested readings
Gallagher, Tom, Michael Laver, and Peter Mair, 1992. Representative Government in Western Europe. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 173-211.
Further readings:
Gallagher, Tom, Michael Laver, and Peter Mair, 1992. Representative Government in Western Europe. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 213-237. Copy in CEUL.
Mitra, Subrata Kumar, 1980. "A Theory of Governmental Instability in Parliamentary Systems." Comparative Political Studies, 13: 235-263.
Warwick, Paul, 1992. "Ideological Diversity and Government Survival in Western European Parliamentary Democracies." Comparative Political Studies 25: 332-361.

Tenth topic. Consensual Democracy
Requested readings:
Lijphart, Arend, 1991. "Majority Rule in Theory and Practice: The Tenacity of a Flawed Paradigm." International Social Science Journal 43: 483-493.
Scholten, llja, 1987. "Introduction: Corporatist and Consocational Arrangements." In: Political Stability and Neo-Corporatism: Corporatist Integration and Social Cleavages in Western Europe, ed. llia Scholten. London and Beverly Hills: Sage, 1-38.
Further readings:
Dekmjian, Richard Hair, 1978. "Consocational Democracy in Crisis: The Case of Lebanon." Comparative Politics 10: 251-265.
Lijphart, Arendt, 1968. The Politics of Accommodation. Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Lijphart, Arend, 1977. Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Copy in CEUL.
Lijphart, Arendt, 1984. Democracies. Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Democracies. New Haven: Yale University Press. Copy in CEUL.

Eleventh topic. Corporatism: Impact on Political Stability, Economic Performance and Electoral Accountability
Requested readings
Gallagher, Torn, Michael Laver, and Peter Mair, 1992 Representative Government in Western Europe. New York: McGraw-Hill, 239-264.
Further readings:
Lewis, Norman, 1990. "Corporatism and Accountability: The Democratic Dilemma." In: Corporatism and Accountability. Organized Interests in British Public Life, ed. Colin Crouch and Ronald Dore. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 63-101.
Crepaz, Markus M. L., 1992. "Corporatism in Decline? An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Corporatism on Macroeconomic Performance and Industrial Disputes in 18 Industrialized Democracies." Comparative Political Studies 25: 139-168.
Alvarez, R. Michael, Geoffrey Garrett, and Peter Lange, 1991. "Government Partisanship, a Labor Organization, and Macroeconomic Performance." American Political Science Review 85: 539-556.
Hart, Jeffrey A., 1992. "The Effects of State-Societal Arrangements on International Competitiveness: Steel, Motor Vehicles and Semiconductors in the United States, Japan and Western Europe". British Journal of Political Science 22: 255-300.

Twelfth topic. The Internal Structure of Political Parties
Requested readings
Gallagher, Tom, Michael Laver, and Peter Mair, 1992. Representative Government in Western Europe. New York: 1991 MacGraw-Hill, 119-141.
Katz, Richard S., Peter Mair, et al., 1992 "The Membership of Political Parties in European Democracies, 1960-1990" European Journal of Political Research 22: 329-345.
Further readings:
Rohrschneider, Robert, N.D. "Iron Law of Oligarchy Soft law of Democracy? Robert Michels and National Party Delegates in Eleven West European Democracies" Indiana University, Typescript.
Ware, Alan, 1992. "Activist-Leader Relations and the Structure of Political Parties: 'Exchange' Models and Vote-Seeking Behaviour in Parties." British Journal of Political Science 22: 7192.
Pomper, Gerald M., and Patricia L. Sykes. 1988. "'Democracy' in British Political Parties." In: Gerald M. Pomper, Voters, Election, and Parties. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Panebiance, Angelo (1982), 1st English edition: 1988. Political Parties: Organization and Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Copy in CEUL.
Hine, David, 1982. "Factionalism in West European Politics: A Framework for Analysis.- West European Politics 5(1): 36-53.
Kitschelt, Herbert, 1990. '"New Social Movements and the Decline of Party Organization." In: Challenging the Political Order. New Social and Political Movements in Western Democracies, ed. Russel J. Dalton, and Manfred Kuechler. Cambridge: Polity Press, 179208.
Hine, David, 1986. "Leaders and Followers: Democracy and Manageability in the Social Democratic Parties of Western Europe." In: The future of Social Democracy. Problems and Prospects of Social Democratic Parties in Western Europe, ed. William E. Patterson, and Alastair H. Thomas. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 261-290.
Johnston, Michael, 1979. "Patrons and Clients, Jobs and Machines: A Case Study . of Patronage." American Political Science Review 73: 385-398.
Katz, Richard S., 1990. "Party as Linkage: A Vestigial Function?" European Journal of Political Research 18:143-161.
Pomper, Gerald M., and Patrician L. Sykes, 1988. "'Democracy' in British Political Parties." In: Gerald M. Pornper, Voters, Election, and Parties. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Gallagher, Tom, and Marsh, Michael {eds.) Candidate Selection in Comparative Perspective. London: Sage.



Digitized version prepared by the Curriculum Resource Center (CRC)
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Revised: April, 1996

Tok_ModelPer.F93PS.v5


Back to the Political Science Syllabi List Back to the Syllabi Collection

Back to the CRC Homepage Back to the CEU Homepage