Miklos Sukosd
Term:Winter Trimester 1995
Faculty of Political Science, Budapest


Januar 18. Overview of the course

I Theoretical concepts

Jan. 20. Civil society and the public sphere (Habermas; Andrew Arato and Jean Cohen)
Required Readings:
Jurgen Habermas, The Structural Change of the Public Sphere, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989, pp. 1-43.

Jan. 24. The mass media and the public sphere
Required Readings:
James Curran, "Rethinking the Media as a Public Sphere," in: Peter Dahlgren - Colin Sparks (eds.) Communication and Citizenship: Journalism and the Public Sphere, London and New York: Routledge, 1991, pp. 27-57.

Jan. 26. Present-day normative dilemmas I: a historical pespective
Required Readings:
Jeffrey Alexander, 'The Mass Media in Systemic, Historical, and Comparative Perspective,' in E. Katz and T. Szecsko (eds), Mass Media and Social Change, London and Beverly Hills: Sage, 1981, pp. 17-52.

Feb. 1. Present-day normative dilemmas II: the media and public interest
(normative frameworks for public stations)
Required Readings:
Denis McQuail, 'Mass Media in the Public Interest: Towards a Framework of Norms for Media Performance,' in Curran and Gurevitch (eds), Mass Media and Societv, London, New York, etc.: Edward Arnold, 1991 pp. 68-81.
Jay G. Bumler, 'Introduction: Current Confrontations in West European Broadcasting' in Jay G. Bumler (ed), Television and the Public Interest: Vulnerable Values in West Eurpean Broadcasting, London: Sage, 1992, pp. 1-6.
Recommended Readings:
Jay G. Bumler, 'Vulnerable Values at Stake' in Bumler (ed) pp. 22-42.

Feb. 3. Present-day normative dilemmas III: institutional frameworks
(public vs. private vs. community broadcasting)
Required Readings:
John Keane, Mass Media and Democracy, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 1991, pp. 51-91; 115-162.
Recommended Readings:
Keane, pp. 2-50; 94-114; 164-193.

II. Mass media and politics in Western democracies

Feb. 8. Constitutional principles and legal regulations of the media (communicative rights and the right of self-expression; media laws in a comparative perspective; media policies and regulations)

Required Readings:
Eric Barend, 'Access to the Media in Western Europe', in The Development of Rights of Access to the Media Budapest: Central European University, Legal Studies Program, June, 1993 (conference materials) pp. 100-107 (permission pending)
Henry Geller, 'Mass Communications Policy: Where We Are and Where We Should be Going' in Judith Lichtenberg, Democracy and the Mass Media, Cambridge, New York, etc. Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 290-330.
Recommended Readings:
Michael Gurevitch and Jay G. Blumler, 'Political Communication Systems and Democratic Values" in Lichtenberg, (ed) pp. 269-289.

Feb. 10. Media and democracy
(the independence of the media; the media as a watchdog of democratic government)
Required Readings:
James Curran, 'Mass Media and Democracy: A Reappraisal' in James Curran and Michael Gurevitch (eds), pp. 82-117.
Gladys Engel Lang and Kurt Lang, 'The Media and Watergate' in Doris A. Graber (ed) Media Power in Politics, Washington, D.C: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1984, pp. 202-209.

Feb. 15. The political economy of the mass media (ownership concentration; local and national market monopolies; international trends in ownership changes; anti-monopoly regulations)
Required Readings:
Ben Bagdikian, The Media Monopoly, Boston: Beacon Press, 1990, Prefaces, Introduction, chs. 1-4 and 10, pp. ix-xxiii, 3-89, 174-192.

III. Mass Media and Politics in Eastern Europe

Feb. 17. Mass media under communism (The propaganda states; Bolshevik roots; Stalinist propaganda; late communist structural, formal-institutional and self-censorship)

Required Readings:
Ellen Mickiewicz, Split Signals: Television and Politics in the Soviet Union, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 22-30.
Jane Curry, The Black Book of Polish Censorship, New York: Vintage Books, 1984, pp. 25-53.
Recommended Readings:
Miklos Haraszti, The Velvet Prison: Artists Under State Socialism, New York: Basic Books, 1987; Mickiewicz, pp. 31-84; Curry, pp. 3-24.

Feb. 22. Samizdat publications and the creation of independent public spheres in Poland, Hungary, Czecho-Slovakia and the Soviet Union
Required Readings:
T. Kaminski, 'Underground Publishing in Poland,' Orbis, Vol. 31, No. 3. (Fall 1987), pp. 313-330.
Recommended Readings:
Gordon H. Skilling, Samizdat and an Independent Societv in Eastern and Central Europe, Houndmills: Macmillan Press, 1989, pp. 3-40, 177-238.

Feb. 24. Tho role of the media in the regional breakthrough and the democratic transitions
(the role of the media in mobilization, issue formation and agenda setting before and during 1989-90; the impact of glasnost; television in the Romanian revolution; German television and international effects; the role of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty)
Required Readings:
Miklos Sukosd, 'Democratic Transition and the Mass Media in Eastern Europe', manuscript.

March 1. (Post-)glasnost: the political roles of (ex-)Soviet media
Required Readings:
Mary Dejevsky, 'Glasnost and the Soviet Press' in Julian Graffy and Geoffrey A. Hosking (eds) Culture and the Media in the USSR Today London: MacMillan, pp. 26-42.

Elena Androunas, 'The Struggle for Control over Soviet Television,' in Marsha Seifert (ed) Mass Culture and Perestroika in the Soviet Union, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991, pp. 185-200.
Recommended Readings:
Victoria E. Bonnell and Gregory Freidin, 'Televorot: The Role of Television Coverage in Russia's August 1991 Coup,' Slavic Review, Vol. 52. no 4 (Winter 1993), pp. 810-838.

March 3. Constitutional, legal and institutional arrangements: an East European regional surveyy (media freedoms and their political contexts in a comparative perspective)
Required Readings:
Ronald Koven, 'Media Laws in Eastern Europe: the Meddler's Itch,' CSCE Bulletin, Warsaw: ODIHR, Vol. 2 No 1 (Winter 1994) pp. 9-14.
'Regional Survey: The Media in Eastern Europe,' RFE/RL Research report, Vol. 2, No. 19, 7 May 1993, pp. 22-35.
Recommended Readings:
Ursula Ruston, 'Recent Developments Concerning the Media Access in Romania', in The Development... CEU conference materials, pp. 77-89.

March 8. Economic issues and ownership patterns (capital flow to Eastern Europe; international media empires; the concept of dependent development; the political economy and politics of Western media ownership in Eastern Europe)
Required Readings:
Zoltan Jakab, Mihaly Galik and Csilla Voros, Survival, Efficiencv, Independence: The Presence of Foreiqn Capital in the Hungarian Media Market, Manchester: The European Institute for the media, 1991.

IV. Media research

March 10. Paradigms and methods in media research
(weak vs. strong, short vs. long-term effects; the political agendasetting function of the media; the two-step model of Lazarsfeld vs. Gitlin; 'framing' and hegemony; content analysis)

Required Readings:
Maxwell E. McCombs and Donald E. Shaw, 'The Agenda Setting Function of the Press' in Graber (ed), pp. 63-72.
Todd Gitlin, The Whole World is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980, pp. 249-282.
Gitlin, pp. 1-31, 283-292.

March 17. Media effects, electoral campaigns, and political advertisements (the effectiveness of media campaigns in influencing public opinion; campaign strategies; political advertisements; audience and public opinion research)
Required Readings:
Jack M. McLeod, Gerald M. Kosicki and Zhongdang Pan, 'On Understanding and Misunderstanding Media Effects,' in Curran and Gurevitch (eds), pp. 235-266.
Recommended Reading:
Thomas E. Patterson, 'Views of Winners and Losers' in Graber (ed.), pp. 141-148;
F. Christopher Arterton, 'Campaign Organizations Confront the Media-Political Environment' in Graber (ed), pp. 155-163;
Timothy Crouse, 'On the Bus,' in Graber (ed), pp. 164-167;
William C. Adams, 'Media Power in Presidential Elections: An Exploratory Analysis, 1960-80,' in Graber (ed.), pp. 175-185; 'The Media Circus' The New York Times Magazine;
Michael Kelly, 'David Gergen, master of the game' The New York Times Magazine, Oct. 31, 1993, pp. 62 ff.

March 22. The media and socio-political 'reality' (news writing as construction of social reality; the issue of objectivity and non-partiality; issues of representation: racism, sexism and minorities in the media; television news culture)

Required Readings:
Judith Lichtenberg, 'In Defense of Objectivity' in Curran and Gurevitch (eds.), pp. 216-231.
Liesbet van Zoonen, 'Feminist Perspectives on the Media' in Curran and Gurevitch (eds.) pp. 33-54.

[Wed, March 15 is a national holiday]

March 24. Globalization and new communication technologies
(internationalization of television news; the roles of CNN; cable, satellites, CD-ROM and multimedia; the Internet; interactive media; new economic, legal, and political issues)
Required Readings:
Michael Gurevitch, 'The Globalization of Electronic Journalism', in Curran and Gurevitch (eds), pp. 178-193.
Recommended Readings:
Steven Levy, 'The battle of the Clipper Chip' New York Times Magazine, June 12, 1994, pp. 44 ff;
Joshua Quittner, 'The merry pranksters go the Washington' [the Electronic Frontier Foundation] Wired, June 1994, pp. 80 ff.

March 29 and 31. Presentation and discussion of students' final paper outlines.

Digitized version prepared by the Curriculum Resource Center (CRC)
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Revised: May 1996


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