AIMS OF THE COURSE The course intends to acquaint the students with three different bodies of literature: a) theories of bureaucracy and management; b) the bureaucratic politics approach in foreign policy analysis; c) historical analysis of crisis management. It will enable the participants to identify and evaluate the major concepts and models of organization studies and to test these abstract and/or formal conceptual tools on the empirical data provided by diplomatic history and foreign policy analysis. Special emphasis will be given to the problematic nature of the commonplace distinction between 'politicians' and 'bureaucrats' as far as the decision-making process is concerned.
REQUIREMENTS: Since the course consists of one lecture and one seminar on the same topic every week, it is essential that the participants read the compulsory literature as preparation for the seminars. To help this preparation students are required to submit at least two short questions on the readings on the day before the seminar. (These questions can be sent by e-mail to my address: email@example.com )
The compulsory readings are collected in a reader available at the library and the department. Recommended readings either can be found in the library or copies can be obtained from the instructor. For the case studies in the Spring Trimester a special bibliography (including published documents) will be distributed.
The end term test is an in-class test, in closed-book format. Students have the option EITHER to take a written final examination at the end of the spring trimester (closed-book, in-class) OR to submit a final essay that should cover more than the compulsory readings on a topic that should be agreed with the instructor on the sixth week the latest.
The final grade will be a composite of the following values:
In-class activity (including participation and questions submitted) - 30 %
Endterm test (Winter Trimester) - 30 %
Final examination or final essay - 40 %
FIRST WEEK (10 JAN.) INTRODUCTION
SECOND WEEK (17, 19 JAN.) FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SOCIOLOGY
Classical theories on bureaucracies; function, efficiency, rationality
Weber, Max, "Bureaucracy" in: Shafritz - Ott (eds.), Classics of Organization Theory. pp. 81-87.
Weber, Max, "The Essentials of Bureaucratic Organization: An Ideal-Type Construction" in: Merton, Robert K. (ed.), Reader in Bureaucracy. New York: The Free Press, 1952. pp. 19-27.
Friedrich, Carl J., "Some Observations on Weber's Analysis of Bureaucracy" in: Merton, Robert K. (ed.), Reader in Bureaucracy. New York: The Free Press, 1952. pp. 27-33.
Parsons, Talcott, "Suggestions for a Sociological Approach to the Theory of Organizations" in: Shafritz, Jay M. - J. Steven Ott (eds.), Classics of Organization Theory. Pacific Grove CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. 1987. pp. 132-145.
Selznick, Philip, "Foundations of the Theory of Organizations" in: Shafritz - Ott (eds.), Classics of Organization Theory.
THIRD WEEK (24, 26 JAN.) THE PUBLIC SECTOR AND THE ECONOMIC APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONS (I)
The process and problems of decision-making; bounded rationality and its implications for the structure of bureaucratic/hierarchical organizations
Williamson, Oliver E., Markets and Hierarchies: "Analysis and Antitrust Implications." New York: The Free Press, 1983 (1st ed. 1975) pp. 20-56.
Simon, Herbert A., "Problem Formulation and Alternative Generation in the Decision Making Process" in: Chikan, A. (ed.) Progress in Decision, Utility and Risk Theory. North Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.
Simon, Herbert A., "Administrative Behavior." New York: The Free Press 1966 (first ed. 1945)
FOURTH WEEK(31 JAN. 2 FEB.) THE PUBLIC SECTOR AND THE ECONOMIC APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONS (II)
The problem of incentives, or "Why would they do their best?"; the principal-agent relationship and its implications for monitoring, rewards, individual motivation and the structure of the organization.
Lane, Jan-Erik, "The Public Sector: Concepts, Models, Approaches." London: Sage, 1993. pp.: 47-68
Sappington, David E. M., "Incentives in Principal-Agent Relationships" Journal of Economic Perspectives Vol 5. No 2 (Spring 1991) pp. 45-66
Holmstrom, Bengt R. - Jean Tirole, "The Theory of the Firm" in: Schmalensee, R. - R. D. Willig (eds.) Handbook of Industrial Organization. Elsevier Science Publishers: B.U., 1989.
FIFTH WEEK (7, 9 FEB.) THE PUBLIC SECTOR AND THE ECONOMIC APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONS (III)
Individual motivation and the output of the bureaux; bureaucracy seen as "oversupply", the role of trust; public and private policies.
Breton, Albert - Wintrobe, Ronald, "The Logic of Bureaucratic Conduct." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985 (1st ed. 1982). pp. 1-60.
Niskanen, William A., "Nonmarket Decision Making: the Peculiar Economics of Bureaucracy" American Economic Review May 1968. pp. 293-305.
Roberts, John, "Economics, Organization and Management." New York: Prentice Hall, 1992.
SIXTH WEEK (14, 16 FEB.) INSTITUTIONAL SETTING AND FOREIGN POLICY (I)
The role of ministers and ministerial bureaucracies in the government: presidential politics v. cabinet politics. The effect on foreign policy decision-making
Kegley, Charles W. - Eugene R. Wittkopf, "American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process." New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991. (1st ed. 1987) pp. 371-414.
James, Simon, "British Cabinet Government." London: Routledge, 1992. pp.12-79, 135-149
King, Anthony, "Ministerial Authority in Britain" in: Laver, Michael - Kenneth A. Shepsle, Cabinet Ministers and Parliamentary Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. pp. 203-225
SEVENTH WEEK (21, 23 FEB.) INSTITUTIONAL SETTING AND FOREIGN POLICY (II)
The structure of the foreign policy bureaucracy and the decision process
Kegley, Charles W. - Eugene R. Wittkopf, "American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process." New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991. (1st ed. 1987) pp. 463-508.
Acheson, Dean, "Present at the Creation: My Life in the State Department." New York: Norton, 1969. pp. 30-39, 216-224
Steinbrunner, John, "The Cybernetic Theory of Decision." Princeton: Princeton Uni. Press, 1976
EIGHTH WEEK (28 FEB., 1 MARCH) THE BUREAUCRATIC POLITICS APPROACH (I)
Kissinger, Henry A., "Domestic Structure and Foreign Policy" in: American Foreign Policy: Three Essays. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1969. pp. 11-43
Allison, Graham T. - Morton H. Halperin, "Bureaucratic Politics: A Paradigm and Some Policy Implications" in: Ikenberry, G. John (ed.), American Foreign Policy. New York: Harper Collins, 1989. pp.378-409.
Maoz, Zeev, "Framing the National Interest: the Manipulation of Foreign Policy Decisions in Group Settings" World Politics Vol. 43. (October, 1990)
NINTH WEEK (6, 8 MARCH) THE BURREAUCRATIC POLITICS APPROACH (II)
Bendor, Jonathan - Thomas H. Hammond, "Rethinking Allison's Models" American Political Science Review Vol. 86, No. 2. (June, 1992) pp. 301-322
Welch, David A., "The Organizational Process and Bureaucratic Politics Paradigms: Retrospect and Prospect" International Security Vol. 17 No. 2 (Fall 1992) pp.:112-146.
Halperin, Morton H., Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1974.
TENTH WEEK (13 MARCH) END TERM TEST (E CLASS)
SPRING BREAK: 15-24 MARCH
ELEVENTH WEEK (27, 29 MARCH) THE BERLIN CRISIS OF 1948 (I)
Kennan, George F., "Memoirs 1925-1950." Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1967. pp. 397-448.
Shlaim, Avi, "The United States and the Berlin Blockade." Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983. pp. 11-39
TWELFTH WEEK (3,5 APRIL) THE BERLIN CRISIS OF I948(ll)
Shlaim, Avi, "The United States and the Berlin Blockade." Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983. pp. 195-280.
Shlaim, Avi, "Britain, the Berlin Blockade and the Cold War" International Affairs Vol. 6, No. 1 (January, 1984) pp. 1-14.
THIRTEENTH WEEK (10, 12 APRIL) THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (I)
Guzini, Stefano, "The Continuing Story of a Death Foretold: Realism in International Relations/lnternational Political Economy." EUI Working Paper SPS No. 92/20 Florence: European University Institute, 1992. pp. 105-122
Allyn, Bruce - James G. Blight - David A. Welch, "Essence of Revision: Moscow, Havana and the Cuban Missile Crisis" International Security Vol. 14, No. 3. (Winter, 1989/90) pp. 136- 171.
FOURTEENTH WEEK (17, 19 APRIL) THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (II)
Bundy, McGeorge, "Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years." New York: Vintage Books, 1988. pp. 391-462
Scott, Len - Steve Smith, "Lessons of October: Historians, Political Scientists, Policy-Makers and the Cuban Missile Crisis" International Affairs Vol. 70, No. 4. (1994) pp. 659-684.
FIFTEENTH WEEK (24, 26 APRIL) OVERVIEW
SIXTEENTH WEEK (3 MAY) ENDTERM EXAMINATION (FINAL PAPERS DUE)
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