This course will try to capture the recent practical changes in international politics through an introduction in classical and modern security studies. In the last decades, international politics has been redefined in several respects. Issues considered crucial for the provision of security have expanded. Besides the military sector, economic security is by now already an established field of diplomacy, whether Multinational Corporations are considered a threat to be protected from or a necessary technological and job-creating factor to be attracted. As the debates about nuclear waste and migration bear witness, also environmental and societal issues are increasingly incorporated into national security politics. Expanding issues of security also means that diplomats have more tables on which they can play and more means through which they can try to influence other actors. Finally, new diplomatic actors have entered the game of international politics. The agenda of diplomacy is exploding.
The outline of the course follows this historical development. The first part of the course introduces into main concepts of military and economic security, before tackling some concrete national security policies. It aims at providing the basic vocabulary and logic of strategic thought. A third part will present some new theoretical developments to come to terms with the concept and phenomenon of security. Finally, these new security concepts will be applied to recently securitised issues as the environment, migration, or ethnic conflicts. During the entire course theory and practice will be handled simultaneously. It is perfectly possible to organize extra sessions in order to discuss security issues of ongoing international events.
It is highly advisable to get used to regularly follow the ongoing debates in the major academic journals and newspapers. Academic journals with a particular interest for security studies are Außenpolitik (engl. edition on order), Défense Nationale (French, not in the library), Europa-Archiv, International Affairs (London), International Security, Politique étrangère (French, on order), Survival, and The Washington Quarterly (not in the library). Sometimes, articles can also be found in Alternatives, American Political Science Review, International Affairs (Moscow), Review of International Studies, Revue Française de Science Politique, and World Politics. Less technical in style, but influential trendsetters for political debates are Foreign Affairs, and Foreign Policy.
The best international monthly is Le Monde Diplomatique. For weekly magazines, one can consult Der Spiegel, Die Zeit, Newsweek or Time, and The Economist. Newspapers which regularly cover international affairs, including security issues, are El Pais (in particular for Latin America, not in the library), Financial Times (for Asia and international economic relations), International Herald Tribune (particularly good on US international affairs), and Le Monde (probably the best daily newspaper, excellent for Europe and Africa).
As you can see, I have refrained from making long supplementary reading lists for this first term. Nevertheless, for a very satisfactory completion of the course, it is probably essential to have read the following books during the term:
David Baldwin, Economic Statecraft (Princeton UP, 1985).
Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear (Hemel Hampstead: Wheatsheaf, 1990).
David Campbell, Writing Security. United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1992).
Lawrence Freedman, The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy (London: Macmillan, 1983 or rev. ed.)
John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).
Ole Wæver et al., Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe (London: Pinter, 1993).
1. Seminar presentation and paper (50%). Students are expected to introduce one of the seminars. They can write their final paper on this seminar topic, but can also chose another one (after consultation with the lecturer). Hence, except for the topics at the beginning of the term, a presentation is not a simple synthesis of readings, but an independent development of a chosen topic. The final version of the paper is due before the last week of the term. Deadlines are deadlines.
2. Readings (20%). Students are expected to read compulsory readings for individual sessions (indicated with an asterisk) and to prepare a one-page position paper. This paper should include a succinct summary of the main theses of the text and can be used to articulate comments and questions about the reading. Please make clear what you did not understand and why (this does not diminish the grade). These position papers serve to make sure both that you read the required texts and that the professor gets a regular feedback. Important points that were not understood will then be explained in the seminar. The exact grading will be explained during the introductory seminar.
3. Book Reviews (30%). Students have to write a comparative book review. Deadline: 13 November.
I. Military and economic statecraft
Week 1-2 (18 Sept - 1 Oct): General Introduction
*Barry Buzan, "New patterns of global security in the twenty-first century", International Affairs, vol. 67, no. 3 (1991), pp. 431-451.
Week 3 (2 - 8 Oct): Introduction to military security
Lecture 1: `Introduction to Nuclear Strategy and Deterrence'
Lawrence Freedman, The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy (London: Macmillan, revised editions).
Tom Schelling, The Strategy of Conflict (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960 or 1980), pp. 3-80.
Lecture 2: `Deterrence and Compellence applied: the Second Gulf War'
*Janice Gross Stein (1992) "Deterrence and Compellence in the Gulf, 1990-1991: A Failed or Impossible Task", International Security, vol. 17, no. 2 (Fall 1992), pp. 147-179.
Week 4 (9 - 15 Oct): Economic Statecraft and Power Analysis
Lecture 3: `How can we assess the impact of economic means in international diplomacy?
*David Baldwin, Economic Statecraft (Princeton UP, 1985), chapter 3, 4, 6, and 7.
Seminar 1: `The usefulness of sanctions as a foreign policy instrument'
*David Baldwin, "The Power of Positive Sanctions", in his Paradoxes of Power (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), chapter 4.
II. National strategies during the Cold War
Week 5 (16 - 22 Oct): Superpower strategies: US
Lecture 4: `The strategy of containment: Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine'
Seminar 2: `From Massive Retaliation to Flexible Response' (2 Presentations)
*John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), chapters 4-8, pp. 89-273.
Week 6 (23 - 29 Oct): Superpower strategies: USSR
Lecture 5: `External and domestic sources of Soviet foreign policy'
Seminar 3: `The development of Soviet strategic thought'
*Michael MccGwire, Perestroika and Soviet National Security (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1991), selected chapters.
Week 7 (30 Oct - 5 Nov): Middle-Power strategies: France and nuclear proliferation
Lecture 6: `Une grande puissance moyenne: politics of prestige and power'
Seminar 4: `La stratégie du faible au fort' (if no French speaker, lecture)
Lothar Ruehl, La politique militaire de la Ve République (Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale de Sciences Politiques, 1976).
Alfred Grosser, Affaires Extérieures (Paris: Flammarion, 1985) or English translation.
Week 8 (6-12 Nov): Middle Power strategies: Germany
Lecture 7: `German foreign policy since 1945'
Seminar 5: `US and German conceptions of flexible response compared: the INF deployment'
*Susanne Peters, The Germans and the INF Missiles: Getting Their Way in NATO's Strategy of Flexible Response (Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1990), chapters 3, 7, 9-10 (pp. 33-91, 197-218, 259-306).
Deadline for Book Reviews
III. Contemporary security studies
Week 9 (13-19 Nov): Modern security studies
Seminar 6: `A conceptual analysis of security'
*Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear (Hemel Hampstead: Wheatsheaf, 1990), pp. 1-34.
Lecture 8: `Security - the Speech Act'
*Ole Wæver, Securitization and Desecuritization (Copenhagen: Centre for Peace and Conflict Research, Working Paper 5/1993).
Week 10 (20-26 Nov): The 2nd Gulf War - revisited
Lecture 9: `What can security studies tell us about the 2nd Gulf War?'
*Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear, chapter 5, pp. 186-229.
Seminar 7: `What can the 2nd Gulf War tell us about security (studies)?'
*Timothy W. Luke, "The Discipline of Security Studies and the Codes of Containment: Learning from Kuwait", Alternatives, vol. 16, no. 2 (Spring 1991), pp. 315-344.
(Possible) Marathon for presenting outline of final paper: 25
Week 11 (27 Nov - 2 Dec): Identity security
Seminar 8: `What is societal security?'
*Ole Wæver, "Societal security", in Ole Wæver et al., Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe (London: Pinter, 1993), pp. 17-40.
*Barry Buzan, "Soceital security, state security and internationalization, ibid., pp. 41-58.
Seminar 9: `Security discourse and national identity'
*David Campbell, "Global Inscription: How foreign policy constitutes the United States", Alternatives, vol. XV (1990), pp. 263-286.
IV. The new diplomatic agenda
Week 12 (3-9 Dec): Migration and Ethnic Conflicts
Seminar 10: `Pros and cons of securitising migration'
*Jef Huysmans, "Migrants as a security problem: dangers of securitising societal issues", in R. Miles and D. Thränhardt, eds, Migration and European Integration: The Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion (London: Pinter, 1994), pp. 53-72.
Seminar 11: `Are ethnic conflicts unsolvable on a peaceful way?'
*Irving Horowitz, Ethnic Conflicts.
Deadline for seminar papers.
Week 13 (10-16 Dec): Environment and Humanitarian Intervention
Seminar 12: `The International Politics of the Environment'
*Andrew Hurrell and Benedict Kingsbury, "The International Politics of the Environment: An Introduction", in their edited The International Politics of the Environment (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), pp. 1-47.
*C. Tickell, "The World after the Summit Meeting at Rio", The Washington Quarterly, Spring 1993.
Seminar 13: `Humanitarian Intervention'
*Adam Roberts, "Humanitarian War: military intervention and human rights", International Affairs (London), vol. 69, no. 3 (1993), pp. 429-449.
*Rosalyn Higgins, "The new United Nations and former Yugoslavia", International Affairs (London), vol. 69, no. 3 (1993), pp. 465-483.
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