THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (I): THE CLASSICAL DEBATES
Stefano Guzzini
Fall Term 1995
Department of Political Science
CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY





Course description

This course aims at making students acquainted with the main stages of the evolution of IR as a discipline since 1945 which can be seen as an ongoing debate about the explanatory value of one particular theory, namely Realism. The purpose of the course is twofold. First, it wants to sensibilise students to the possibilities and limits of theoretical studies in IR. The course should allow students to become aware of different ways of seeing and understanding international affairs. It is based on the practical distinction between the explanatory and constituive function of theories. It should show not only how one can use theories to analyse "given" events, but how the determination and analysis of these very events is itself constructed by different theories. This should enhance the students' abilities to detect also implicit methodological and theoretical assumptions. This applies in particular for non-theoretical academic texts or contemporary political debates, because Realism underlies much common sense discussion on international affairs. Second, this awareness should be seen as a starting point for learning how to translate ideas, however incompletely, from one theory to another. Students are invited to think about how to question their own ideas, and also to make them understandable and persuasive to those of their peers who are not sharing the same theoretical (or political) assumptions. In this respect, it can be seen as an exercise in practical diplomacy.

The course does not require a prior knowledge of social or political theory, but the latter would certainly not harm. It does require, however, that students be interested in abstract thinking. For all those who want to pursue studies in international relations, the course is fundamental.

Requirements:
1. Seminar presentation and paper (50%). Students are expected to introduce one of the seminars. They can write their final paper on this seminar topic, but can also chose another one (after consultation with the lecturer). Hence, except for the topics at the beginning of the term, a presentation is not a simple synthesis of readings, but an independent development of a chosen topic. The final version of the paper is due before the last week of the term. Deadlines are deadlines.
2. Readings (20%). Students are expected to read compulsory readings for individual sessions (indicated with an asterisk) and to prepare a one-page position paper. This paper should include a succinct summary of the main theses of the text and can be used to articulate comments and questions about the reading. Please make clear what you did not understand and why (this does not diminish the grade). These position papers serve to make sure both that you read the required texts and that the professor gets a regular feedback. Important points that were not understood will then be explained in the seminar. The exact grading will be explained during the introductory seminar.
3. Book Reviews (30%). Students have to write a comparative book review.

Basic Readings by Realists:
Raymond Aron, Paix et guerre entre les nations (Paris: Callman-Lévy, 1962). The library has also the English edition.
Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (London: Macmillan, 1977).
Henry Kissinger, A World Restored (London: Gollancz, 1957).

...about Realists
Martin Griffith, Realism, Idealism and International Politics: A reinterpretation (London, New York, Routledge, 1992).
Stefano Guzzini, The Continuing Story of a Death Foretold: Realism in International Relations/International Political Economy (Florence, European University Institute: Working Paper SPS 20/92) and revised drafts for the forthcoming book published by Routledge next year.
Michael Smith, Realist Thought from Weber to Kissinger (Baton Rouge: Lousiana State University Press, 1986.

It is highly advisable to get used to regularly follow the ongoing debates in the major academic journals and newspapers. Academic journals with a particular interest for the theory of international relations are Alternatives, Europa-Archiv, International Organization, International Studies Quarterly, Millennium, Review of International Studies, and World Politics. Occasional articles can be found in American Political Science Review, International Affairs (London), International Affairs (Moscow), International Security, Politique étrangère (French, on order), Politische Vierteljahresschrift (German, on order), and Revue Française de Science Politique. Less technical in style, but influential trendsetters for political debates are Foreign Affairs and Foreign Policy.

I. General Introduction

Week 1-2 (18 Sept - 1 Oct): General Introduction

Week 3 (2 - 8 Oct): IR as a discipline
Lecture 1: `The development of IR as a discipline revisited'
Readings:
*Stanley Hofmann, `An American Social Science: International Relations', Dædalus, vol. 106, no. 3 (1977), pp. 41-60, reprinted in Janus and Minerva. Essays in International Theory and Practice.
Steve Smith, `The Development of International Relations as a Social Science', Millennium, vol. 16, no. 2 (1987), pp. 189-206.

II. The First Debate: Realism vs. Idealism

Lecture 2: `E.H. Carr and the crisis of Collective Security'
Reading:
*E.H. Carr, The Twenty Years' Crisis, 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan, 1946), chapters 4-6 (pp. 41-94).

Week 4 (9 - 15 Oct): The beginnings of the new paradigm

Lecture 3 (Levente Gajdocsi): `Geopolitics'

Lecture 4: `The bible: Morgenthau's Politics Among Nations'
Reading:
*John Herz, `Idealist Internationalism and the security dilemma', World Politics, vol. II (1950), pp. 157-180.
*Michael Smith, Realist Thought from Weber to Kissinger, chapter 6, pp. 134-164.

Week 5 (16 - 22 Oct): Realism and US foreign policy during the Cold War
Lecture 5: `The origins of containment'
Readings:
*George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy 1900-1950 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1951), Part II, pp. 107-154.
John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), chapters 1-3, pp. 1-88.

Seminar 1: `The collapse of containment?'
Readings:
*John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), chapters 7-8, pp. 198-273.
Stanley Hoffmann, Primacy or World Order (New York: McGraw Hill, 1978), chapter 1.

III. The evolution of Realist concepts through the Second Debate: Scientism vs. Traditionalism

Week 6 (23 - 29 Oct): The Second Debate
Lecture 6: `International Relations as a social science'
Readings:
*Morton Kaplan, `Variants on six models of the international system', in James Rosenau (ed.), International Politics and Foreign Policy: A Reader in Reasearch and Theory (New York: Free Press, 1969), pp. 291-303.
*Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations, Introduction (the six prinicples of Realism).

Week 7 (30 Oct - 5 Nov): `The English School of IR: Hedley Bull'
Seminar 2: `The concept of international society'
Readings:
*Hedley Bull, `Society and Anarchy in International Relations', in H. Butterfield and M. Wight (eds), Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Relations (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966), pp. 35-50.
*Hedley Bull, `The Grotian Conception of International Society', in H. Butterfield and M. Wight (eds), Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Relations (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966), pp. 51-73.

Seminar 3
: `Institutions of international Society'
Reading:
Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society. A study of order in World Politics (London: Macmillan, 1977), Part II, pp. 101-229.

Deadline for book review: 6

Week 8 (6-12 Nov): `The Balance of Power: Theory, Concept, or Description?'
Seminar 4: `The history of the balance of power'
*Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations, Part 4: The Balance of Power.
*Martin Wight, `The Balance of Power', in H. Butterfield and M. Wight (eds), Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Relations (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966).

Seminar 5: `The Balance of Power as explanatory concept'
*Ernst B. Haas, `The Balance of Power: Prescription, Concept, or Propaganda', World Politics, vol. V, no. 4 (July 1953), pp. 442-477.
*Inis Claude, `The balance of power revisited', Review of International Studies, vol. 15 (1989), pp. 77-85.
*Inis Claude, Power and International Relations (New York: Random House, 1962), pp. 3-39.
Special Issue of the Review of International Studies on the Balance of Power, vol. 15, pp. 75ff.

Week 9 (13-19 Nov): Objective laws for counseling the prince?
Lecture 8: `Scientific reason and "raison d'Etat"'
Readings:
*Raymond Aron, War and Peace, chapters 1-3 (pp. 1-93).

Seminar 6: `National Interest - more than a symbol?'
Readings:
*Arnold Wolfers, Discord and Collaboration (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962), chapter 10 (pp. 147-166).

Week 10 (20-26 Nov): Epilogue: Marxist Anti-Idealism
Lecture 9: Marxist Theories of Imperialism
Readings:
*R.N.Berki, `On Marxian Thought and the Problem of International Relations', World Politics, vol. 24, no. 1 (1971), pp. 80-105.
Anthony Brewer, Marxist Theories of Imperialism. 2nd ed (London, New York: Routledge, 1990).

(Possible) Marathonb: 26

Seminar 7: `Marxist and Realist concepts (and practice) compared'
Readings:
*Margot Light, The Soviet Theory of International Relations (Brighton: Harvester/Wheatsheaf, 1988), chapters 8-9, pp. 209-293.
Allen Lynch, The Soviet Study of International Relations, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), chapters 3-6, pp. 32-130.

IV. The Third Debate: Realism vs. Globalism

Week 11 (27 Nov - 2 Dec): Transnational Politics
Lecture 10: `Intro into the Third Debate'
No readings

Seminar 8: `Power and Interdependence: Rejection of or Supplement to Realism?'
Readings:
*Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye jr., Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1977), Part I.

Week 12 (3-9 Dec): Dependency and World System Analysis
Seminar 9: `Dependency theories and its critics'
Readings:
*Gabriel Palma, `Dependency and development. a critical overview', in Dudley Seers (ed.), Dependency Theory. A Critical Assessment (London: Frances Pinter, 1980), pp. 20-73.
Theotonio Dos Santos, `The Structure of Dependence', American Economic Review, vol. LX (1971), pp. 231-236.
Fernando Henrique Cardoso, `Associated-Dependent Development. Theoretical and Practical Implications', in A. Stepan (ed.), Authoritarian Brazil: Origins, Policies and Future (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973), pp. 142-176.
Fernando Henrique Cardoso, `The consumption of dependency theory in the United States', Latin American Research Review, vol. 12 (1977), pp. 7-24.
Sanjaya Lall, `Is "Dependence" a useful concept in analysing underdevelopment?' World Development vol. 3 (November-December 1975), pp. 799-810.
Robert Brenner, `The origins of capitalist development. A critique of Neo-Smithian Marxism', New Left Review, vol. 104 (1977), pp. 25-92.

Seminar 10: `World System Analysis and its critics'
Readings:
*Immanuel Wallerstein, `The Rise and Future Demise of the World-Capitalist System: Concepts for Comparative Analysis', reprinted in The Capitalist World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974/79), pp. 387-415.
*Theda Sko_pol, `Wallerstein's World Capitalist System: A Theoretical and Historical Critique', American Journal of Sociology, vol. 82 (1977), pp. 1075-1090.

Deadline for Semiinar Paper.

Week 13 (10-16 Dec): `Realist Policy in an Era of Detente: the case of Kissinger'
Seminar 11: `Realist Thought and Praxis from Kennan to Kissinger: a synthesis'
Readings:
*Henry A. Kissinger, A World Restored (1957), pp. 1-3. chapters IX-XI, XVII.
*Henry A. Kissinger, White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1979), chapter III, pp. 54-70.
Stanley Hoffmann, Primacy or World Order, chapter 2.



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Modified: May, 1996

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