Stefano Guzzini
Winter/Spring Term 1995/1996
Department of Political Science

Course description

The seminar tries to understand what came to an end with the end of the Cold War and how theories about the post Cold War world influence our understanding of ongoing events. It will comprise the following parts: the debates about the end of the Cold War; the assessment of IR theories for the understanding of the end of the Cold War; new theoretical debates for the understanding of the post Cold War world; the actors and processes of the present European security order; the symbolic value of recent events for writing the "lessons" of post-1989 history. Although the topic is mainly framed in terms of IR theory and security studies, the reading material of the course will draw on different disciplines, in particular with regard to the construction of knowledge and the analysis of collective memory. The seminar will be open to student suggestions for particular topics of their interest and encourages students to discuss first drafts of their MA theses during the term.

This course completes the two different courses of the first term, namely the introductions into the Classical theoretical debates of International Relations and Security Studies/The Agenda of Contemporary Diplomacy. Therefore, it mixes the two fields. In the first part, it updates the theoretical debates by introducing into the neorealist turn and the "constructivist" research programme. The research strategies and analyses will be illustrated with reference to the explanation of the End of the Cold War and its aftermath. In the second part, particular issues of present world affairs, as suggested by students, will be covered. During the term, regular sessions on current event analysis will hopefully provide an update on world affairs in those parts of the world which are not the primary focus of the seminar.

The course also prepares for those who want to write a Master Thesis in International Relations. During the term, students are invited to try out topics that will be part of their Master Thesis. Indeed, the last weeks will be only dedicated to the discussion of rough first drafts. For this reason, a special emphasis has been put on meta-theoretical issues, i.e. about questions what "academic" work is all about, about the status of knowledge in the social sciences, about methodologies and general problems in constructing valid explanations. This is useful for any thesis, whether in IR or not.


1. Essays (2 x 25% = 50%).
Two essays of a minimum of 2500 words are due at the end of section I, 2., or II, 1. on central topics of the seminar.

2. Seminar Presentation and Discussion (30%).
Students are expected to introduce one of the seminars both presenting and commenting. Except for the topics at the beginning of the term, a presentation is not a simple synthesis of readings, but an independent development of a chosen topic. One of the essays can be based on the presentation. A discussant tries to introduce a discussion by commenting on a presentation. The idea is neither to be complementary to the fellow student ("fine analysis", "not much to say"), nor to satisfy one's ego at the expense of the other. The discussant should try to improve the presentation (an essay might be based on it), by soliciting the collaboration of the seminar on crucial shortcomings, or simply complex topics which require further discussion.

3. Current event analysis (20%).
The seminar will be divided in groups which will be responsible to cover current events of one of the following geographical areas: Latin America, Africa, Near and Middle East (in its political definition, i.e. including the Mediterranean rim of Africa), East Asia and Oceania. Groups can work collectively, in smaller groups or individually, although it seems reasonable to expect that a good division of labour reduces work load and leads to more cross-fertilization (dividing the journals to be read, using different language capacities, e.g.). The analysis should be succinct as if the group was responsible to give a "briefing" of the background information to a high official, represented here by the other participants of the seminar. A short chronology of major events might be useful. Diverging interpretations should be spelled out and compared. The analysis will be copied and distributed. Some central newspaper articles or short academic articles might be added. If wanted, special sessions can be organised to discuss these issues (or one might use the Thursday night meetings). For their essays, students are encouraged to link such analyses with the theoretical literature of the course.

Basic readings

The absolute must for this term is:

Martin Hollis & Steve Smith, Explaining and Understanding International Relations (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990).
See also: Jim George, Discourses of Global Politics: A (Re)Introduction into International Relations (Boulder: Lynne Rienner and London: Macmillan, 1994).

Moreover, it is advisable to get acquainted with the compulsory readings of the first term. In Theory, this included books Realists:
Raymond Aron, Paix et guerre entre les nations (Paris: Callman-Levy, 1962). The library has also the English edition.
Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (London: Macmillan, 1977).
Henry Kissinger, A World Restored (London: Gollancz, 1957).

...about Realists
Martin Griffith, Realism, Idealism and International Politics: A reinterpretation (London, New York, Routledge, 1992).
Stefano Guzzini, The Continuing Story of a Death Foretold: Realism in International Relations/lnternational Political Economy (Florence, European University Institute: Working Paper SPS 20/92).
Michael Smith, Realist Thought from Weber to Kissinger (Baton Rouge: Lousiana State University Press, 1986.

In Security Studies, the list included:
David Baldwin, Economic Statecraft (Princeton UP, 1985).
Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear (Hemel Hampstead: Wheatsheaf, 1990).
David Campbell, Writing Security. United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1992).
Lawrence Freedman, The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy (London: Macrnillan, 1983 or rev. ed.) John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).
Ole Waever et al., Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe (London: Pinter, 1993).

For a satisfactory Master Thesis, students should follow the ongoing debates in the major academic journals. Academic journals with a particular interest for the theory of international relations and security studies are Alternatives, Ausenpolitik (engl. edition on order), Europa-Archiv (German, on order), European Journal of International Relations (on order), International Affairs (London), International Affairs (Moscow), International Organization, International Security, International Studies Quarterly, Millennium, Politique etrangere (French, on order), Review of International Studies, Review of International Political Economy, Survival, The Washington Quarterly, and World Politics. Occasional articles can be found in American Political Science Review, Politische Vierteljahresschrift (German, on order), and Revue Francaise de Science Politique. Less technical in style, but influential trendsetters for political debates are Foreign Affairs and Foreign Policy.

The best international monthly is Le Monde Diplomatique. For weekly magazines, one can consult Der Spiegel, Die Zeit, Newsweek or Time, and The Economist. Newspapers which regularly cover international affairs, including security issues, are El Pais (in particular for Latin America, not in the library, but for sure in one of the cultural centers in Budapest), Financial Times (for Asia and international economic relations), International Herald Tribune (particularly good on US international affairs), and Le Monde (probably the best daily newspaper, excellent for Europe and Africa).

The end of the (post) Cold War?

I. The Role of Theories for Understanding Change

Week 2-3 (15-21 Jan): IR theories - useless?
John Lewis Gaddis, "International Relations Theory and the End of the Cold War", International Security, vol . 17, no. 3 (Winter 1992/1993).
Heikki Patomaki, "What Is It That Changed with the End of the Cold War? An Analysis of the Problem of Identifying and Explaining Change", in Pierre Allan & Kjell Goldmann (eds), The End of the Cold War: Evaluating Theories of International Relations (Dordrecht et al.: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1992), pp. 179-225.
Fred Halliday, "The End of the Cold War and International Relations: Some Analytic and Theoretical Conclusions", in Ken Booth and Steve Smith (eds), International Relations Theory today (Oxford: Polity Press, 1995), pp. 38-61.

1. Theory as the result of knowledge: Neorealism and the explanation of the end of the Cold War

Week 4 (29 Jan - 4 Feb): The Neorealist Paradigm
Lecture: Waltz's Neorealist turn
Kenneth Waltz, A Theory of International Politics (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1979), chaps 1, 4-6, reprinted as chapters 2-5 in Robert O. Keohane, ed., Neorealism and its Critics (New York: Columbia UP, 1986).
Seminar: What is new in Neorealism?
Kenneth Waltz, "Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory", Journal of International Affairs, vol. 44, no. 1 (Summer 1990), pp. 21-38.

Week 5 (5-11 Feb): The Neorealist explanation of the end of the Cold War and its critics
Seminar: Applying Balance of Power Theory
William C. Wohlforth, "Realism and the End of the Cold War", International Security, vol. 19, no. 3 (Winter 1994/95), pp. 91-129.
Lecture or Seminar: A failure of Realist explanations?
Friedrich Kratochwil, "The embarassement of changes: neo-realism as the science of Realpolitik without politics", Review of International Studies, vol. 19, no. 1 (January 1993), pp. 63-80.
Roy Koslowski and Friedrich Kratochwil, "Understanding Change in international politics: the Soviet empire's demise and the international system", International Organization, vol. 48, no. 2 (Spring 1994), pp. 215-247.
Richard Ned Lebow, "The long peace, the end of the cold war, and the failure of realism", International Organization, vol. 48, no. 2 (Spring 1994), pp. 249-277.

2. Theory as the condition for knowledge: thinking International Relations Beyond Neorealism

Week 6 (12-18 Feb): Politics as Symbolic Action
Murray Edelman, The Symbolic Uses of Politics (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1964), chapters 1-2, 6.
Lecture or seminar: The symbolic construction of legitimacy
Murray Edelman, Politics as Symbolic Action: Mass Arousal and Quiescence (New York: Academic Press, 1971), chapters 9-10.
John Gaventa, Power and Powerlessness: Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980), chapter 1.

Week 7 (19-25 Feb): The analysis of belief systems and collective memory
Seminar: The study of belief systems in foreign policy analysis
Michael Dillon, "Thatcher and the Falklands", in Richard Little and Steve Smith (eds), Belief Systems and International Relations (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), pp. 167-189.
Richard Little, "Belief Systems in the Social Sciences", in Richard Little and Steve Smith (eds), Belief Systems and International Relations (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988)), pp. 37-56.
Steve Smith, "Belief Systems and the Study of International Relations", in Richard Little and Steve Smith (eds), Belief Systems and International Relations (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), pp. 11-36.
Lecture: The power of collective memory
Stefano Guzzini, "Structural Power: The Limits of Neorealist Power Analysis", International Organization, vol. 47, no. 3 (Summer 1993), pp. 443-478.
Stefano Guzzini, Power Analysis as Critique of Power Politics: Understanding Power and Governance in the Second Gulf War (Florence: European University Institute, 1994, PhD diss.), chapter 13: "Governance through collective memory: just war tales and the World War II script", pp. 279-303.

Week 8 (26 Feb - 3 Mar): The social construction of the Cold War and the difficulty to think politics anew
Lecture or seminar: Power politics as a social practice
Alexander Wendt, "Anarchy is what states make of it: the social construction of power politics", International Organization, vol. 46, no. 2 (Spring 1992), pp. 391-425.
Lecture or seminar: The conceptual limits of political imagination
R.B.J. Walker, "International Relations and the Concept of the Political", in Ken Booth and Steve Smith (eds), International Relations today (Oxford: Polity Press, 1995), pp. 306327
R.B.J. Walker, "Sovereignty, Identity, Community: Reflections on the Horizons of Contemporary Political Practice", in R.B.J. Walker and Saul H. Mendlovitz, Contending Sovereignties: Redefining Political Community (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1990), pp. 159185.

II. Understanding Post-Cold War Security

1. Picturing the Post-Cold War World
Week 9 (4-10 Mar): Grand theories
Seminar: The clash of civilization
Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilization
Robert Cox, "Civilizations: Encounters and Transformations" (York lecture in political science, 10 November 1994)
Seminar: Freeze theory and its critics
John Mearsheimer, "Back to the Future: Instability in Europe After the Cold War", International Security, vol. 15, no. I (Summer l990), pp. 5-56.
Stephen van Evera, "Primed for Peace: Europe after the Cold War", International Security, vol. 15, no. 3 (Winter 1990/1991).

Week 10 (11-17 Mar): The political economy of European security Seminar: Security in an era of globalisation
Robert Cox, "Production and Security", in D. Dewitt, D. Haglund, and J. Kirton (eds), Building a New Global Order: Emerging Trends in International Security (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). (since not in library, a final draft version will be in the reader)
Stefano Guzzini, "The coincidence of peaceful changes: the political economy of Italy at the end of the Cold War", in Heikki Patomaki (ed.), Peaceful Change in World Politics (Tampere: TAPRI, 1996), pp. (since this is not yet in the library, a shorter version is in the reader: "The 'Long Night of the First Republic': years of clientelistic implosion in Italy", Review of International Political Economy, vol. 2, no. 1 (Winter 1995), pp. 27-61.

2. Current issues presented by guest lectures (together with IPE course by Anna Leander)
(Weeks 11-16)
Henk Overbeek, Senior Lecturer in International Political Economy, University of Amsterdam
Thursday, 28 March, 9.00: "Global Restructuring and the shaping of European Migration Policy"
Heikki Patomäki, Senior Fellow of the Finnish Institute of International Affairs, Programme Director on "European Changes"
Thursday, 28 March, 14.30: "An introduction into the problems of cosmopolitan democracy"
Friday, 29 March, 12.00: "The Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU and its relations to Russia"
Jef Huysmans, Lecturer at the London Center of International Relations of the University of Kent
Monday, 1 April, 15.00: "The implosion of the Cold War - the explosion of security problems?"
Tuesday, 2 April, 14.30: "Securitizing Migration"
Trevor Findlay, Project leader of "Peacekeeping and Regional Security" at SIPRI
Thursday, 11 April, 14.30: "Peace-Keeping: Past Performance and Future Prospects"
Friday, 12 April, 12.00: "Lessons from Cambodia"
Ernst-Otto Czempiel, Professor emeritus of Foreign Policy and International Politics at the University of Frankfurt, Co-Director of the Peace Research Institute, Frankfurt
Monday, 22 April, 15.00: "The role of the UN after the end of the Cold War"
Tuesday, 23 April, 14.30: "The European structure of security and peace"
Nomi Bar-Yaakov, UN staff member, former legal adviser to the UN mission in Haiti and former political adviser to the UN mission in Guatemala
Monday, 29 April, 15.00: "The role of human rights in preventive diplomacy and post-conflict building"
Tuesday, 30 April, 14.30: "Lessons from Haiti"
Philip Cerny, Professor of International Political Economy at the University of Leeds
Thursday, 2 May, 14.30: "What next for the state?"
Friday, 3 May, 12.00: "Is financial globalisation eroding state autonomy?"

CRC-Curriculum Resource Center
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Modified: May, 1996


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