Andras Bozoki
Term: Fall 1994
Department of Political Sciences, Budapest

Preliminary Course Description:

The year 1989 saw the sudden end of Communist Party rule in six East-Central Europe countries where most had thought it impregnable a short time before; at the same time, the position of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia was becoming increasingly uncertain. Although many observers had pointed for some time to difficulties in the operation of these systems, virtually no one had predicted so rapid a collapse of Communism in East-Central Europe.

This course will examine the conditions that led to this sudden collapse and the subsequent direction of change in the various countries, except the ex-Soviet Union. We shall follow the nature of the former regime, its crisis, the patterns of transition, the questions of systemic transformation, the political process of transition (independent initiatives, negotiations, mass mobilization, free elections, demobilization etc.), the new power elite, the chief actors of transition, the nature of post-communist politics, the fragility of new democracies. The course will discuss, some theoretical debates on the concept of revolution and of transition (Hannah Arendt, Chalmers Johnson, Guillermo O'Donnell, Philippe Schmitter, Juan J. Linz, Adam Przeworski etc.), study the main agents of the transformation, as well as it aims to follow the political history of the change. The course will examine the processes of transitions from authoritarian rule in comparative perspective, although it gives the greatest emphasis on the Hungarian political change, focusing on the events of the last decade. We shall make some comparisons between the East-Central European political transitions and the former South-European (Spain, Portugal, Greece) and Latin American (Argentina) ones.

The reading assignments and the schedule of the course are enclosed in the syllabus. Course requirements include attendance at lectures, a midterm exam (test) and a final exam (essay).


1-2. Revolution? Reform? Coup? Transition? Theories of Change.
Required Readings:
Guillermo O'Donnell - Philippe Schmitter - Laurence Whitehead (eds.): Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. Vol. 1-4. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
Peter Calvert: Revolution and Counter-revolution. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1990.
Hannah Arendt: On Revolution. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987.
Suggested Readings:
Chalmers Johnson: Revolutionary Change. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1966
Barrington Moore: Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy.
John Dunn: Modern Revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

3. Traditions and Post-Communism
Required Readings:
Andrew C. Janos: The Politics of Backwardness in Hungary. (parts) Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.
András Körösényi: "Revival of the Past or New Beginning? The Nature of Post-Communist Politics" In: András Bozóki - András Körösényi - George Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition: Emerging Pluralism in Hungary. London: Pinter Publishers; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. pp. 111-131.
Suggested Reading:
Michael G. Roskin: The Rebirth of East Europe. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1991.


4. The Stages of Transition
Required Readings:
András Körösényi: "The Decay of Communist Rule in Hungary" In: Bozóki-Körösényi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition, pp. 1-12.
Patrick Brogan: "A Chronology of Collapse of Communism"

5. The Old Regime and Its Crisis
Required Readings:
Judy Batt: "Political Reforms in Hungary" Parliamentary Affairs, 4/1990.
Charles Gati: "Reforming Communist Systems: Lessons from the Hungarian Experience" In: W.E.Griffith (ed.): Central and Eastern Europe: The Opening Curtain? Westview Press, 1989.

6. The Strategies of the Opposition (Hungary and Poland)
Required Readings:
Adam Michnik: "A New Evolutionism" In: Letters from Prison and Other Essays. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.
Z.A. Pelczynski: "Solidarity and 'The Rebirth of Civil Society' in Poland, 1976-81"
Janos Kis: Politics in Hungary: For a Democratic Alternative. Highland Lakes, N.J.: Atlantic Research and Publications, 1989.

7. The Decay of the Communist Party.
Required Readings:
R. Tökés-G. Schöpflin-I. Völgyes: "Leadership Change and Crisis in Hungary" Problems of Communism, September 1988.

8. Emerging Independent Initiatives
Required Readings:
András Bozóki: "Critical Movements and Ideologies in Hungary" Südosteuropa, No.7-8. 1988.
Máté Szabo: "Changing Patterns of Mobilization in Hungary Within New Social Movements: the Case of Ecology and the Student Movements" In: György Szoboszlai (ed.): Democracy and
Political Transformation
Budapest: Hungarian Political Science Association, 1991. pp. 310-324.
László Urbán: "Hungary in Transition. The Emergence of Opposition Parties" Telos, Spring 1989.

9. The Ideological and Political Scene (1989)
Required Readings:
András Bozóki: "Post-Communist Transition: Political Tendencies in Hungary" In: Bozóki-Körösényi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition pp. 13-29.
László Lengyel: "The Character of the Political Parties in Hungary (Autumn 1989)" In: Bozóki-Körösényi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition. pp. 30-44.
Suggested Reading:
György Csepeli - Antal Orkény: Ideology and Political Beliefs: The Twilight of State Socialism in Hungary . London: Pinter, 1992.

10. The Opposition Roundtable and the Trilateral Negotiations
Required Readings:
László Bruszt: "1989: The Negotiated Revolution in Hungary" In: Bozóki-Körösényi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition. pp.
András Bozóki: "Hungary's Road to Systemic Change: The Opposition Roundtable" East European Politics and Societies, Vol.7. No.2, Spring 1993.

11. Elections and Political Fields
Required Readings:
András Körösényi: "Hungary" Electoral Studies Vol.9. No.4. 1990.
András Körösényi: "Stable or Fragile Democracy? Political Cleavages and Party System in Hungary" In: György Szoboszlai (ed.): Flying Blind: Emerging Democracies in East-Central Europe. Budapest: Hungarian Political Science Association, 1992. pp.344-356
T. Kolosi-I. Szelényi-Sz. Szelényi-B. Western: "The Making of Political Fields in Post-Communist Transition" In: Bozóki-KörösényiSchöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition, pp. 132-162

12. The Chief Actors of Political Transition
Required Readings:
George Konrád-Ivan Szelényi: "Intellectuals and Domination in PostCommunist Societies" In: P. Bourdieu - Coleman (eds.):
Rudolf L.Tökés: "Hungary's New Political Elites: Adaptation and Change, 1989-90" In: Szoboszlai (ed.):Democracy and Political Transformation, Budapest, HPSA, 1991. pp. 226-286.
László Bruszt - David Stark: "Remaking the Political Field in Hungary: From the Politics of Confrontation to the Politics of Competition" In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca-London: Cornell University Press, 1992. pp. 13-55.

13. Post-Communist Politics: Prospects and Realities
Required Readings:
Iván Szelényi: "Alternative Futures for Eastern Europe: The Case of Hungary" EEPS, Vol.4. No.2. Spring 1990.
János Kis: "Post-Communist Politics in Hungary" Journal of Democracy, Summer 1991.
András Bozóki: "Democrats Against Democracy? Civil Protest in Hungary Since 1990." In: Gerd Meyer (ed.): Die polititischen Kulturen Ostmitteleuropas im Umbruch. (The Political Cultures of East Central Europe in Transition) Tübingen: Francke Verlag, 1993.

It is required to read by that time:
Timothy Garton Ash: The Magic Lantern. New York: Random House, 1990.
Ralf Dahrendorf: Reflections on the Revolution in Europe. London: Chatto &;Windus, 1990.

15. Poland
Required Readings:
David Ost: "The Transformation of Solidarity and the Future of Central Europe" Telos, Spring 1989.
Z.A. Pelczynski: "Poland" Electoral Studies, Vol.9. No 4. 1990.
David Ost: "Shaping a New Politics in Poland: Interests and Politics in PostCommunist East Europe" Working Papers, Cambridge, Center for European Studies, Harvard Univ., 1991.
Stanislaw Gebethner: "Political Parties in Poland, 1989-1993. In: Gerd Meyer (ed.): Die Politischen Kulturen..., pp. 311-338.
Suggested reading:
Jadwiga Staniszkis: The Dynamics of the Breakthrough in Eastern Europe: The Polish Case. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Timothy Garton Ash: The Polish Revolution: Solidarity. New York: Vintage Books, 1985.

16. East Germany
Required Readings:
John Fitzmaurice: "Eastern Germany" Electoral Studies, Vol.9. No.4. 1990.
David Childs: "East Germany's First Free Elections" Parliamentary Affairs, October 1990.
Roger East: Revolutions in Eastern Europe. London and New York: Pinter Publishers, 1992. pp. 62-86.
Suggested Reading:
Jens Reich: "Reflections on Becoming an East German Dissident, on Losing the Wall and the Country" In: Gwyn Prins (ed.): Spring in Winter: The 1989 Revolutions. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.

17. The "Velvet Revolution": Czechoslovakia
Required Readings:
Vilém Precan: "The Democratic Revolution" Journal of Democracy, Winter 1990.
Milan Simecka: "The Restoration of Freedom" Journal of Democracy, Summer 1990.
Václav Havel: "People, Your Government Has Returned to You" Journal of Democracy, Spring, 1990.
Gordon Wightman: "Czechoslovakia" Electoral Studies, Vol.9. No.4. 1990.
Tony R.Judt: "Metamorphosis: The Democratic Revolution in Czechoslovakia" In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution, pp.96-116.
Suggested reading:
Bernard Wheaton - Zdenek Kavan: The Velvet Revolution: Czecho- Slovakia, 1988-1991. Boulder-Oxford: Westview Press, 1992.

18. Bulgaria
Required Readings:
Misha Glenny: "Bulgaria: The Delicate Flower" In: Glenny: The Rebirth of History. London, Penguin, 1990.
Stephen Ashley: "Bulgaria" Electoral Studies, 9:4, 1990.
Maria N.Todorova: "Improbable Maverick or Typical Conformist? Seven Thoughts on the New Bulgaria" In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution, pp. 148-167.

19. Romania
Required Readings:
Nigel Hawkes (ed.) Tearing Down the Curtain. Chapter 7. pp. 124-146. "Romania: The half-finished revolution" London, Hodder &;Stoughton, 1990.
Daniel N. Nelson: "Romania" Electoral Studies, Vol.9. No.4. 1990 .
Jonathan Eyal: "Why Romania Could Not Avoid Bloodshed" In: Gwyn Prins (ed.): Spring in Winter, pp. 139-162.
Katherine Verdery - Gail Kligman: "Romania After Ceausescu: PostCommunist Communism" In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution, pp. 117-147.

20. Yugoslavia
Required Readings:
Misha Glenny: "Yugoslavia: The Tragedy of Revenge" In: Glenny, 1990.
Mihajlo Mihajlov: "Can Yugoslavia Survive?" Journal of Democracy, Spring 1991.
Ivo Banac: "Post-Communism as Post-Yugoslavism: The Yugoslav NonRevolutions of 1989-1990. In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolutions, pp. 168-187.
Roger East: Revolutions in Eastern Europe. London and New York, Pinter Publishers, 1992. pp.156-169.


21. Constitutional Change
Required Readings:
András Bozóki: "Political Transition and Constitutional Change in Hungary" Südosteuropa 9/1990.
Arend Lijphart: "Democracy and Constitutional Choices in CzechoSlovakia, Hungary and Poland, 1989-1991" In: Szoboszlai (ed.): Flying Blind, pp. 99-113.

22. Parliamentarism vs. Presidentialism
Required Readings:
Juan J. Linz: "The Perils of Presidentialism" Journal of Democracy, Winter 1990.
Donald Horowitz: "Comparing Democratic Systems" Journal of Democracy, Fall 1990.
Juan J. Linz: "The Virtue of Parliamentarism" Journal of Democracy, Fall 1990.

23. The Problems of Civil Society and the Danger of Populism
Required Readings:
Ferenc Miszlivetz: "The Injuries of East Central Europe: Is the AutoTherapy of Civil Society Possible?" Slovo, June 1991.
Giuseppe Di Palma: "Why Democracy Can Work in Eastern Europe" Journal of Democracy, Winter 1991.
Adam B. Seligman: The Idea of Civil Society. New York: Free Press, 1992.
Background Readings:
Jean Cohen - Andrew Arato: Civil Society and Political Theory. Cambridge, MIT Press, 1992.
Keith Tester: Civil Society. London-New York: Routledge, 1992.

24. The Role of Intellectuals During and After the Changes
Required Readings:
Milovan Djilas: The New Class.
George Konrád - Iván Szelényi: Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power. New York: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich, 1979.
András Bozóki: "Intellectuals and Democratization in Hungary" In: Chris Rootes - Howard Davis (eds.): A New Europe? Social Change and Political Transformation. London, 1994.

25. Comparing Transitions: Southern Europe (Portugal, Spain, Greece) and Eastern Europe.
Required Readings:
Guillermo O'Donnell - Philippe Schmitter - Laurence Whitehead (eds.): Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Southern Europe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
Richard Gunther - Giacomo Sani - Goldie Shabad: Spain After Franco: The Making of a Competitive Party-System. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

26. Comparing Transitions: Latin America (Argentina) and Eastern Europe.
Required Readings:
Carlos H. Waisman: Reversal of Development in Argentina: Postwar Counterrevolutionary Policies and Their Structural Consequences. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.
Guillermo O'Donnell - Philippe Schmitter - Laurence Whitehead (eds.): Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Latin America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
Suggested Readings:
Larry Diamond - Juan Linz - Seymour M. Lipset (eds.): Democracy in Developing Countries. Vol.4. Latin America. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1989.
Scott Mainwaring - Guillermo O'Donnell - J. Samuel Valenzuela (eds.): Issues in Democratic Consolidations: The New South American Democracies in Comparative Perspective. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992.

27. Comparing Transitions: A General View.

András Bozóki: "The Hungarian Political Transition From Comparative Perspective" In: Bozóki-Körösényi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition. pp. 163-191.
Guillermo O'Donnell-Philippe Schmitter: Transitions From Authoritarian Rule. Vol.4. Tentative Conclusions About Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
Samuel P. Huntington: "How Countries Democratize" Political Science Quarterly, Vol.106. No.4. Winter 1991-92, pp. 579-616.
Background Reading:
S. White-J. Gardner-G. Schöpflin-T. Saich (eds.): Communist and PostCommunist Political Systems. London: Macmillan, 1990.
The Columbia History of Eastern Europe. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.
Juan J. Linz: Crisis, Breakdown, Reequilibrium. Baltimore London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

28. CLOSING CLASS (The evaluation of essays)

Digitized version prepared by the Curriculum Resource Center (CRC)
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Revised: April, 1996


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