POST-COMMUNIST TRANSITION IN HISTORICAL AND COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
András Bozóki
Fall 1995
Department of Political Sciences
CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY



Course Description:

The year 1989 saw the sudden end of Communist Party rule in six East-Central Europe countries where most had thought it impregnable a short time before; at the same time, the position of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia was becoming increasingly uncertain. Although many observers had pointed for some time to difficulties in the operation of these systems, virtually no one had predicted so rapid a collapse of "Communism" in East-Central Europe.

This course will examine the conditions that led to this sudden collapse and the subsequent direction of change in the various countries, except the ex-Soviet Union. We shall follow the nature of the former regime, its crisis, the patterns of transition, the questions of systemic transformation, the political process of transition (independent initiatives, negotiations, mass mobilization, free elections, demobilization etc.), the new power elite, the chief actors of transition, the nature of post-communist politics, the fragility of new democracies. The course will discuss, some theoretical debates on the concept of revolution and of transition (Hannah Arendt, Chalmers Johnson, Guillermo O'Donnell, Philippe Schmitter, Juan J. Linz, Adam Przeworski etc.), study the main agents of the transformation, as well as it aims to follow the political history of the change. The course will examine the processes of transitions from authoritarian rule in comparative perspective, although it gives the greatest emphasis on the Hungarian political change, focusing on the events of the last decade. We shall make some comparisons between the East-Central European political transitions and the former South-European (Spain, Portugal, Greece) and Latin American (Argentina) ones.

The reading assignments and the schedule of the course are enclosed in the syllabus. Course requirements include attendance at lectures, a midterm exam (test) and a final exam (essay).

The evaluation process is the following: a 100 per cent performance consists of three components:
1. activity in class 30 per cent
2. midterm test 30 per cent
3. final essay 40 per cent

The date of the midterm test: in the second part of October. Deadline for the final essays: mid-December.


Syllabus


I. THE NATURE AND FORMS OF POLITICAL CHANGE

1-2. Revolution? Reform? Coup? Transition? Theories of Change.
Required Readings:
Alfred Stepan: "Paths toward Redemocratization: Theoretical and Comparative Considerations: In: Guillermo O'Donnell - Philippe Schmitter - Laurence Whitehead (eds.): Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. Vol. 1-4. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986. pp.64-84.
Juan J. Lintz: "Transitions to Democracy" Washington Quarterly, Summer 1990. pp.143-164.
Adam Przeworski: Democracy and the Market.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. pp.51-99
Suggested Readings:
Hannah Arendt: On Revolution. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987.
Peter Calvert: Revolution and Counter-revolution. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1990.

3. Social and Political Traditions in East-Central Europe
Required Readings:
Jeno Szucs: " Three Historical Regions of Europe" In: John Keane (ed.): Civil Society and the State. New York -London: Verso, 1988. pp.291-332.
Mihaly Vajda: "East-Central European Perspectives" In: In: John Keane (ed.): Civil Society and the State. New York -London: Verso, 1988. pp.333-360.
Suggested Reading:
Michael G. Roskin: The Rebirth of East Europe. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1991.


II. THE HISTORY OF POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION IN HUNGARY

4. The Stages of Transition
Required Readings:
András Körösényi: "The Decay of Communist Rule in Hungary" In: Bozóki-Körösényi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition, London: Pinter, 1992. pp. 1-12.
Patrick Brogan: "A Chronology of Collapse of Communism" In: Brogan: The Captive Nations. New York: Avon Books, 1990, pp.259-269.

5. The Old Regime and Its Crisis: The Decay of the Communist Party.
Required Readings:
Elemer Hankiss: "Reforms and Conversion of Power" In: Peter R. Weilemann - Georg Brunner - Rudolf L. Tokes (eds.): Upheaval against the Plan: Eastern Europe on the Eve of the Storm. Oxford-New-York: Berg, 1991. pp.27-39
Janos M. Kovacs: "Compassionate Doubts about Reform Economics" In: J.M. Kovacs-M.Tardos (eds.): Reform and Transition in Eastern Europe: Soviet-type Economics on the Threshold of Change. London-New York: Routledge, 1992. pp.299-333.
Suggested Reading:
R.L.Tokes- G.Schopflin-I.Volgyes: "Leadership Change and Crisis in Hungary" Problems of Communism, September 1988.

6-7. The Strategies of the Opposition (Hungary and Poland)
Required Readings:
Adam Michnik: "A New Evolutionism" In: Letters from Prison and Other Essays. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987. pp.135-148.
Janos Kis: "Kadar Must Go" In: Politics in Hungary: For a Democratic Alternative. Highland Lakes, N.J.: Atlantic Research and Publications, 1989. pp.143-152.
Suggested Reading:
Rudolf L. Tokes (ed.): Opposition in Eastern Europe. Baltimore-London: The John Hopkins University Press, 1979.
Jane Leftwich Curry (ed.): Dissent in Eastern Europe. New York: Praeger, 1983.

8-9. Movements into Parties: Emerging Independent Initiatives
Required Readings:
András Bozóki: "Post-Communist Transition: Political Tendencies in Hungary" In: Bozóki-Körösényi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition London: Pinter, 1992 pp. 13-29.
László Lengyel: "The Character of the Political Parties in Hungary (Autumn 1989)" In: Bozóki-Körösényi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition., London: Pinter, 1992. pp.30-44.
Suggested Reading:
András Bozóki: "Critical Movements and Ideologies in Hungary" Südosteuropa, No.7-8. 1988.

10-11. Negotiations, Mass Mobilizations, Free Elections
Required Readings:
László Bruszt: "1989: The Negotiated Revolution in Hungary" In: Bozóki-Körösényi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition.. London: Pinter, 1992. pp. 45-59.
András Bozóki: "Hungary's Road to Systemic Change: The Opposition Roundtable" East European Politics and Societies, Vol.7. No.2, Spring 1993. pp.276-308.
László Bruszt - David Stark: "Remaking the Political Field in Hungary: From the Politics of Confrontation to the Politics of Competition" In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca-London: Cornell University Press, 1992. pp. 13-55.
András Körösényi: "The Hungarian Parliamentary Elections" In: András Bozóki - András Körösényi - George Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition: Emerging Pluralism in Hungary. London: Pinter Publishers; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. pp. 72-87.
Suggested Reading:
T.Kolosi-I.Szelenyi-Sz.Szelenyi-B.Western: "The Making of Political Fields in Post-Communist Transition" In: András Bozóki - András Körösényi - George Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition: Emerging Pluralism in Hungary. London: Pinter Publishers; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. pp. 132-162.

12. MIDTERM TEST. It is required to read by that time:
Guillermo O'Donnell - Philippe Schmitter: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies.. In: O'Donnell-Schmitter-Whitehead (eds.): Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. Baltimore-London: The John Hopkins University Press, 1986

III. POLITICAL CHANGE IN EAST CENTRAL EUROPE.

13. Poland

Required Readings:
Z.A. Pelczynski: "Solidarity and 'The Rebirth of Civil Society' in Poland, 1976-81" In: John Keane (ed.): Civil Society and the State. London-New York: Verso, 1988. pp.361-380.
Aleksander Smolar: "The Polish Opposition" In: Andrew Arato-Ferenc Feher (eds.): Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe. New Brunswick: Transaction, 1991. pp.175-251
Stanislaw Gebethner: "Political Parties in Poland, 1989-1993". In: Gerd Meyer (ed.): Die Politischen Kulturen Ostmitteleuropas im Umbruch. Tubingen-Basel,1993. pp. 311-338.
Suggested reading:
Timothy Garton Ash: The Polish Revolution: Solidarity. New York: Vintage Books, 1985.
Jadwiga Staniszkis: The Dynamics of the Breakthrough in Eastern Europe: The Polish Case. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

14. East Germany
Required Readings:
Roger Woods: Opposition in the GDR under Honecker. 1971-1985. London: Macmillan, 1986. pp.24-41.
Norman M. Naimark: "'Ich will hier raus': Emigration and the Collapse of the German Democratic Republic" In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca-London: Cornell University Press, 1992. pp.72-95.
Albert O. Hirschman: "Exit, Voice, and the Fate of the German Democratic Republic" World Politics, Vol.45. No.2. January 1993. pp.173-202.
Jürgen Kocka: "Crisis of Unification: How Germany Changes" Daedalus, Vol.123. No.1. Winter 1994. pp.173-192.
Suggested reading
Jens Reich: "Reflections on Becoming an East German Dissident, on Losing the Wall and the Country" In: Gwyn Prins (ed.): Spring in Winter: The 1989 Revolutions. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990. pp.65-97.
Elizabeth Pond: Beyond the Wall: Germany's Road to Unification. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1993.

15. The "Velvet Revolution": Czechoslovakia
Required Readings:
H.Gordon Skilling: "Independent Currents in Czechoslovakia" Problems of Communism. Vol.34. January-February 1985. pp.32-49.
Tony R.Judt: "Metamorphosis: The Democratic Revolution in Czechoslovakia" In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca-London: Cornell University Press, 1992. pp.96-116.
Gordon Wightman: "The Czech and Slovak Republics" In: S.White-J.Batt-P.G.Lewis (eds.): Developments in East European Politics. London: Macmillan, 1993. pp.51-65.
Suggested readings:
Jiri Pehe (ed.): The Prague Spring: A Mixed Legacy. New York: Freedom House, 1988.
Bernard Wheaton - Zdenek Kavan: The Velvet Revolution: Czechoslovakia, 1988-1991. Boulder-Oxford: Westview Press, 1992.

16. Bulgaria
Required Readings:
Vallery Tchukov: Still in the Queue: Bulgaria Waits for Democracy. London: The Institute for European Defense and Strategic Studies, 1990.
Maria N.Todorova: "Improbable Maverick or Typical Conformist? Seven Thoughts on the New Bulgaria" In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca-London: Cornell University Press, 1992. pp. 148-167.
John D.Bell: "Bulgaria" In: S.White-J.Batt-P.G.Lewis (eds): Developments in East European Politics. London: Macmillan, 1993. pp.83-97.
Suggested reading
Misha Glenny: "Bulgaria: The Delicate Flower" In: M.Glenny: The Rebirth of History. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1990.

17. Romania
Required Readings:
Matei Calinescu - Vladimir Tismaneanu: "The 1989 Revolution and Romania's Future" Problems of Communism, Vol.45. January-April 1991. pp.42-59.
Jonathan Eyal: "Why Romania Could Not Avoid Bloodshed" In: Gwyn Prins (ed.): Spring in Winter. Manchester. Manchester University Press, 1990. pp.139-162.
Katherine Verdery - Gail Kligman: "Romania After Ceausescu: Post-communist Communism" In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ithaca-London: Cornell University Press, 1992. pp. 117-147.
Suggested reading:
Martyn Rady: Romania in Turmoil. London-New York: I.B. Tauris, 1992.

18. Yugoslavia
Required Readings:
Ivo Banac: "Post-Communism as Post-Yugoslavism: The Yugoslav Non-Revolutions of 1989-1990" In: Ivo Banac (ed.): Eastern Europe in Revolutions. Ithaca-London: Cornell University Press, 1992. pp. 168-187.
Jim Seroka: "Yugoslavia and Its Successor States" In: S.White-J.Batt-P.G.Lewis (eds.): Developments in East European Politics. London: Macmillan, 1993. pp.98-121.
Suggested readings:
Fred Singleton: A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Misha Glenny: "Yugoslavia: The Tragedy of Revenge" In: M.Glenny: The Rebirth of History. Harmondsworth: Penguins 1990.
Branka Magas: The Destruction of Yugoslavia. London-New York:

IV. COMPARATIVE CONSIDERATIONS

19. East Central European Transitions
Required Readings:
Roger East: Revolutions in Eastern Europe. London-New York: Pinter, 1992.
Herbert Kitschelt: "The Formation of Party-Systems in East Central Europe" Politics and Society, Vol.20. No.1. March 1992. pp.7-50.
Suggested readings:
Joseph Held (ed.): The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press 1992.
Timothy Garton Ash: The Magic Lantern. New York: Random House, 1990.
Ralf Dahrendorf: Reflections on the Revolution in Europe. London: Chatto & Windus, 1990.
George Schöpflin: Politics in Eastern Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.
"Bulletin for Electoral Statistics" East European Politics and Societies, Vol.7. No.3. Fall 1993.

20. The Chief Actors of Post-Communist Transition: Politicians and Intellectuals, Elites and the Civil Society
Required Readings:
George Konrad - Ivan Szelenyi: Intellectuals and Domination in Post-Communist Societies" In: P.Bourdieu - J.S.Coleman (eds.): Social Theory in a Changing Society. Boulder: Westview Press, 1991. pp.337-361.
Rudolf L.Tökes: "Hungary's New Political Elites: Adaptation and Change, 1989-90" Problems of Communism, Vol.39. November-December 1990. pp.44-65.
Andras Bozoki: "Intellectuals and Democratization in Hungary" In: Chris Rootes - Howard Davis (eds.): Social Change and Political Transformation. London: UCL Press, 1994. pp.l49-175.
Janina Frentzel-Zagorska: "Civil Society in Poland and Hungary" Soviet Studies, Vol.42. No.4. 1990. pp.759-777.
Suggested readings:
George Konrad - Ivan Szelenyi: Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1973.
Andrew Arato: "Revolution, Civil Society and Democracy" In: Zbigniew Rau (ed.): The Reemergence of Civil Society in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Boulder: Westview Press, 1991. pp.161-181.
Klaus von Beyme: "Regime Transition and Recruitment of Elites in Eastern Europe" Governance, Vol.6. No.3. July 1993. pp.409-425.

21-22. The Problems of Institution-building: Constitutional Issues and the Presidentialism v. Parliamentarism Debate
Required Readings:
Arend Lijphart: "Democracy and Constitutional Choices in Czecho-Slovakia, Hungary and Poland, 1989-1991" In: György Szoboszlai (ed.): Flying Blind. Budapest: HPSA, 1992. pp.99-113.
Jon Elster: "Constitution-making in Eastern Europe. Rebuilding the Boat in the Open Sea" In: Joachim Jens Hesse (ed.): Administrative Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993. pp.169-217.
Suggested readings:
Juan J.Linz: "The Perils of Presidentialism" Journal of Democracy, Vol.1. No.1. Winter 1990. pp.51-69.
Donald Horowitz: "Comparing Democratic Systems" Journal of Democracy, Vol.1. No.3. Fall 1990. pp.73-79
Juan J.Linz: "The Virtue of Parliamentarism" Journal of Democracy, Vol.1. No.3. Pall 1990. pp.84-91.

23-24. Consolidation or Breakdown? Post-Communist Politics
Required Readings:
Ivan Szelenyi: Alternative Futures for Eastern Europe: The Case of Hungary" East European Politics and Societies, Vol.4. No.2. Spring 1990. pp.231-254.
Giuseppe Di Palma: "Why Democracy Can Work in Eastern Europe" Journal of Democracy, Vol.2. No.1. Winter 1991.
Andras Körösenyi: "Revival of the Past or New Beginning? The Nature of Post-Communist Politics" In: Bozoki-Körösenyi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition. London: Pinter, 1992. pp.111-131.
Suggested readings:
Gabor Gyani: "Political Uses of Tradition in Post-Communist East Central Europe" Social Research, Vol.60. No.4. Winter 1993. pp.893-913.
Andras Bozoki: "Democrats Against Democracy? Civil Protest in Hungary Since 1990. In: Gerd Meyer (ed.): Die Politischen Kulturen Ostmitteleuropas im Umbruch. (The Political Cultures of East Central Europe in Transition) Tubingen: Francke Verlag, 1993. pp.229-248.

25-26. 'East' and 'South': Some Comparisons.
Required Readings:
Andras Bozoki: "The Hungarian Political Transition in a Comparative Perspective" In: Bozoki-Körösenyi-Schöpflin (eds.): Post-Communist Transition. London: Pinter, 1992. pp.163-191.
Samuel P.Huntington: "How Countries Democratize" Political Science Quarterly, Vol.106. No.4. Winter 1991-92, pp.579-616.
Guillermo O'Donnell: "On the State, Democratization and Some Conceptual Problems: A Latin American View with Glances at Some Post-Communist Countries" World Development, Vol.21. No.8. 1993. pp.1355-1369
Suggested readings:
Guillermo O'Donnell - Philippe Schmitter - Laurence Whitehead (eds.): Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Southern Europe Latin America. Baltimore-London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
Richard Gunther - Giacomo Sani - Goldie Shabad: Spain After Franco: The Making of a Competitive Party-System. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
Larry Diamond - Juan Linz - Seymour M.Lipset (eds.): Democracy in Developing Countries. Vol.4. Latin America. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1989.
Scott Mainwaring - Guillermo O'Donnell - J.Sanuel Valenzuela (eds.): Issues in Democratic Consolidations: The New South American Democracies in Comparative Perspective. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992.

The evaluation of the final essays.



CRC-Curriculum Resource Center
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Modified: July, 1996

Boz_PostCoTr.F95PS.v3

Back to the Political Science Syllabi List Back to the Syllabi Collection

Back to the CRC Homepage Back to the CEU Homepage