Andras Bozoki
Terms: Winter and Spring 1995
Department of Political Science, Budapest

Course Summary

The aim of the course is to give a comprehensive introduction to the modern political ideologies. We are witnessing the revival of some old ideologies, as well as the influence of some new ones in the post-communist epoch. Although the course focuses on ideologies, still puts them into the context of social and political practice, (e.g. movements). It starts with the concept of ideology itself, and then takes the most important ideologies one after the other. I would like to examine the topic such a way in which we shall discuss the theoretical considerations first, and then, taking both Western and Eastern examples, the impact of these ideas on the reality. This is basically not a political philosophy class, since it focuses on the main components of the ideologies, their cohesiveness and social and political functions.

Beside some 'classic' ideologies (liberalism, conservatism, socialism, democratic theories), we also discuss some others (anarchism, fascism, nationalism etc.) which all had significant impact in the history of ideas, as well as some 'new' ideologies which appeared important from the 1960s onwards (feminism, ecologism, new left, new right, post modernism). The course ends with the study of 'great debates' on ideology, i.e. the 'end of ideology' debate in the late fifties and early sixties, and the 'end of history' debate in the early nineties.


The trimester consists of approx. 20 meetings (10 lectures and 10 seminars) between mid-January and late March, 1995. It is required from the students to continuously follow the readings and prepare for the seminars every week. There will be no midterm test, but short reports (2-3 pages) about the impact of certain ideologies in different countries of Eastern and Central Europe, and a final essay (maximum 12 pages). In the seminars we shall discuss some general points about the lectures, and in each seminar a student presents a report which will be discussed and compared to other cases. The evaluation is based on activity in class (report + other contributions 50%) and the final essay (50%).

The course will be continued in the short third semester in May and June with about 6-8 meetings, mostly seminars. Here we are going to study New Left and New Right ideologies, as well as populism and post modernism, and we shall discuss the 'great debates' on ideology, i.e. the 'end of ideology' debate in the late fifties and early sixties, and the 'end of history' debate in the early nineties. In the third semester, written materials will not be required, but activity in class will be still expected and honored.


1-2. The concept on ideology and the meaning of Left and Right
Required readings:
Andrew Vincent: "The Nature of Ideology" In: Modern Political Ideologies. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. pp. 1-21.
Terry Eagleton: Ideology. London-New York: Verso, 1991. pp. 1-31.
Suggested readings:
Karl Mannheim: Ideology and Utopia. London: Routledge &;Kegan Paul, 1972.
David McLellan: Ideology. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1986.

3-4. Liberalism
Required readings:
Isaiah Berlin: "Two Concepts of Liberty" In: Michael J. Sandel (ed.): Liberalism and Its Critics. New York: New York University Press, 1984. pp. 15-36.
Ludwig von Mises: Liberalism in the Classical Tradition. San Francisco: Cobden Press, 1985. pp. 18-59.
Barbara Goodwin: "Liberalism" Using Political Ideas. Chichester: John Wiley &;Sons, 1987. pp. 33-60.
Suggested readings:
Friedrich A. Hayek: The Constitution of Liberty Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1960.
John Gray: Liberalism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986.
Anthony Arblaster: The Rise and Decline of Western Liberalism. Oxford: Basil Blackball, 1986.

5-6. Conservatism
Required readings:
Michael Oakeshott: "On Being Conservative" In: On Being Conservative and Other Essays . London: Methuen, 1962. pp. 168-196.
David Clarke: "The Conservative Faith in a Modern Age" In: Philip W. Buck (ed. ): How Conservatives Think. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1975. pp. 165-173.
Noel O'Sullivan: "Conservatism" In: Roger Eatwell-Anthony Wright (eds.): Contemporary Political Ideololgies. London: Pinter, 1993. pp. 50-77.
Suggested readings:
Edmund Burke: Reflections on the French Revolution. Baltimore: Penguin, 1969.
Karl Mannheim: "Conservative Thought" In: Essays on Sociology and Social Psychology. London: Routledge &;Kegan Paul, 1953.
Robert Nisbet: Conservatism: Dream and Reality. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1986.

7-8. Socialism/Communism
Required readings:
Karl Marx - Friedrich Engels: "Manifesto of the Communist Party" In: Robert C. Tucker (ed.): The Marx-Engels Reader. New York-London: W.W.Norton &;Company, 1978. pp. 469-500.
Adam Przeworski: "Social Democracy as a Historical Phenomenon" New Left Review, No.122. July-August 1980. pp. 27-58.
R.N. Berki: "What Is Socialism?" In: Socialism. New York: St.Martin's Press, 1975. pp. 9-38.
Suggested readings:
Alexander Gray: The Socialist Tradition. London: Longmans, 1963.
John Plamenatz: Man and Society. Vol.2. London: Longmans, 1963.
Bernard Crick: Socialism. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1987.
Leszek Kolakowski: Main Currents of Marxism. Vol.1-3. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.

9-10. Anarchism
Required readings:
Mihail Bakunin: Statism and Anarchy (excerpts) In: Sam Dolgoff (ed.):
Bakunin on Anarchism. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1980. pp. 323-350.
Jeno Henrik Schmitt: "What Do We Want?" In: J.M.Bak-A.Bozoki-M.Sukosdeds, Liberty and Socialism. Savage: Rowman &;Littlefield, 1991. pp. 9-19.
Robert Paul Wolff: In Defense of Anarchism. New York-London: Harper &;Row, 1970. pp. 69-82.
Jeremy Jennings: "Anarchism" In: Roger Eatwell-Anthony Wright (eds.): Contemporary Political Ideologies. London: Pinter, 1993. pp. 127-146.
Suggested readings:
George Woodcock (ed.): The Anarchist Reader. London: Fontana, 1977.p
Peter Marshall: Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. London: Fontana. 1992.

11-12. Nationalism
Required readings:
Anthony D. Smith: "Definitions" In: Theories of Nationalism. London: Duckworth, 1971. pp.153-191.
George Schopflin: "Nationalism and National Minorities in East and Central Europe" Journal of International Affairs, Vol.45. No.1. Summer 1991. pp.51-65.
Andrew Heywood: "Nationalism" In: Political Ideologies. London: Macmillan, 1992. pp. 136-170.
Suggested readings:
Benedict Anderson: Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983.
Ernest Gellner: Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.
Elie Kedourie: Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.
Liah Greenfeld: Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.

13-14. Fascism National Socialism
Required readings:
Giovanni Gentile: "The Philosophic Basis of Fascism" Foreign Affairs, Vol. 6. No.2. 1928. pp. 290-304.
Murphy-Stevens-Trivers-Roland: "National Socialism" In: Readings on Fascism and National Socialism. London: Swallow Press, 1952. pp. 62-107.
Andrew Vincent: "Fascism" In: Modern Political Ideologies. Odord: Blackwell, 1992. pp. 141-171.
Suggested readings:
Roger Griffin: The Nature of Fascism. London: Routledge, 1993.
Walter Laqueur (ed.): Fascism: a Reader's Guide. Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1978.
Ernst Nolte: Three Faces of Fascism. London: Weidenfeld &;Nicolson, 1965.
Eugene Weber: Varieties of Fascism. New York: Van Nostrand, 1964.

15-16. Feminism
Required readings:
Mary Wollstonecraft: A "Vindication of the Rights of Woman." (excerpts) In: Miriam Schneir (ed.): Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings. New York: Vintage, 1994. pp. 5-16.
Julia Kristeva: "Women's Time" In: N.O. Keohane-M.Z. Rosaldo-B.C. Gelpi (eds.): Feminist Theory" A Critique of Ideology. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1982. pp. 31-53.
Caroline Ramazanoglu: Feminism and the Contradictions of Oppression. London-New York: Routledge, 1993. pp. 5-24.
Suggested readings:
Hester Eisenstein: Contemporary Feminist Thought. London-Sydney: Unwin, 1984.
Rosemarie Tong: Feminist Thought. London-Sydney: Unwin, 1989.
John Charvet: Feminism. London: Dent, 1982.
Catherine A. MacKinnon: Only Words. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.

17-18. Environmentalism Ecologism
J. Baird Callicott: "Non-Anthropocentric Value Theory and Environmental Ethics" American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol.21. No.4. October 1984. pp. 299-309.
Charlene Spretnak-Fritjof Capra: Green Politics: A Global Promise. Santa Fe: Bear &;Co., 1986. pp. 29-56.
Andrew Vincent: "Ecologism" In: Modern Political Ideologies. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. pp. 208-237.
Suggested readings:
James Lovelock: Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Andrew Dobson: Green Political Thought. London: Harper Collins, 1991.
Andrew Dobson (ed.): The Green Reader. London: Andre Deutsch, 1991.

19-20. Democratic Theories
Joseph A. Schumpeter: "Another Theory of Democracy" In: Capitalism. Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper &;Row, 1950. pp. 269-283.
Jack L. Walker: "A Critique of the Elitist Theory of Democracy" The American Political Science Review, Vol.60. No.2. June 1966. pp. 285-295.
Peter Bachrach: "Interest, Participation and Democratic Theory" In: R. Pennock-J.W. Chapman (eds.): Participation in Politics. NOMOS XVI. New York: Lieber-Atherton, 1975. pp. 39-55.
Samuel P.Huntington: "The Modest Meaning of Democracy" In: Robert A Pastor (ed.): Democracy in the Americas: Stopping the Pendulum. New York-London: Holmes &;Meier, 1989. pp. 11-28.
Suggested readings:
David Held: Models of Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1987.
Anthony Arblaster: Democracy. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1987.
Giovanni Sartori: The Theory of Democracy Revisited. Vol.1-2. Chatham: Chatham House, 1987.
Robert A. Dahl: Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven-London: Yale University Press, 1989.


21-22. New Left, New Right and &;Postmodernism
Required readings:
Daniel &;Gabriel Cohn-Bendit: "The Nature of the Communist Bureaucracy" In: Obsolete Communism: The Left Wing Alternative. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968. pp. 170-195.
John Gray: "Conservatism, Individualism and the Political Thought of the New Right" In: Post-liberalism: Studies in Political Thought. New York-London: Routledge, 1993.
Barry Smart: Postmodernity. London: Routledge, 1993. pp. 11-39.
Suggested readings:
David G. Green: The New Right. London: Wheatsheaf Books, 1987.
Fredric Jameson: Postmodernism. or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991.
Zygmunt Bauman: Intimations of Postmodernity. London-New York, 1992.
Thomas Doherty (ed.): Postmodernism: a Reader. New York-London

23-24. Debates on Ideology: "End of Ideology?","End of History?"
Required readings:
Max J. Skidmore: "Managerialism" In: Ideologies: Politics in Action. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1993. pp.189-217.
Raymond Aron: "The End of the Ideological Age?" In: Chaim I. Waacman (ed.): The End of Ideology Debate. New York: Funk &;Wagnalls, 1968. pp. 27-48.
Seymour M. Lipset: "The End of Ideology?" In: op.cit. pp. 69-86.
Daniel Bell: "The End of Ideology in the West" In: op.cit. pp. 87-105.
Francis Fukuyama: "End of History?" National Interest, Summer 1989.
Suggested reading:
Chaim I. Waxman (ed.): The End of Ideology Debate. New York: Funk &;Wagnalls, 1968.

25-26. What Is Populism: Ideology, Discourse or Something Else?
Required readings:
Andreas Boeckh: "Populism in Latin America: Economic Crises and the Rise of New Development Coalitions" Working Paper #1. CEU, Dept. of Political Science, Budapest, 1993.
Andras Bozoki: "An Outline of Three Populisms: United States, Argentina and Hungary" Working Paper #5. CEU, Dept. of Political Science, 1994.
Suggested readings:
Margaret Canovan: Populism. New York - London: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1981.
Ghita Ionescu - Ernest Gellner (eds.): Populism: Its Meaning and National Characteristics. London: Weidenfeld &;Nicholson, 1969.
Norman Pollack (ed.): The Populist Mind. Indianapolis-New York: The Bobbs Merrill Co. Inc., 1967.
George B. Tindall (ed. ): A Populist Reader. New York: Harper &;Row, 1966.

27-28. Ideologies in Action: The Case of the Social Movements
Required readings:
Ron Eyerman - Andrew Jamison: Social Movements: A Cognitive Approach. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991. pp. 94-119.
Suggested readings:
Alberto Melucci: Nomads of the Present. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.

Digitized version prepared by the Curriculum Resource Center (CRC)
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Revised: April, 1996


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