CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES
Andras Bozoki
Winter, 1996
Department of Political Sciences
CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY



Course Description

The aim of the course is to give a comprehensive introduction to the modern political ideologies. The revival of some old ideologies as well as the increasing influence of some new ones are characteristic features of the post-communist epoch. Although the course focuses on ideologies, still puts them into the context of social and political practice. It starts with the concept of ideology itself, and then takes the most important ideologies one after the other. I would like to examine the topic such a way in which we shall discuss the theoretical considerations first, and then, taking both Western and Eastern examples, the impact of these ideas on the reality. This is not a political philosophy class, since it focuses on the main components of ideologies, their cohesiveness and social and political functions. Beside some 'classic' Ideologies (liberalism, conservatism, socialism, democratic theories), we also discuss some others (anarchism, fascism, nationalism etc.) which all had significant impact in the history of ideas, as well as some 'new' ideologies which appeared important from the 1960s onwards (feminism, ecologism, new left, new right). The course also follows the main debates on ideology, i.e. the 'end or ideology' debate in the late fifties and early sixties, and the 'end of history' debate in the early nineties. Finally, the role of intellectuals as ideologists is taken into consideration.

The second trimester consists of approx. 20 meetings between mid-January and late March, 1996. It is required from the students to continuously follow the readings and prepare for the seminars every week. There will be a midterm test, and a relatively short final essay (7-8 pages) about the impact of certain chosen ideologies in different countries of Eastern and Central Europe. In the seminars we shall discuss some general points about the lectures, and in each seminar a student presents a report which will be discussed and compared to other cases. The evaluation is based on activity in class (40 percent), the midterm test (30 percent) and the shorter final essay (30 percent).

The course will be continued in the third trimester from late March till early May with 12 meetings. Here we are going to study feminism, ecologism, New Left and New Right ideologies, as well as the 'great debates' on ideology. The course ends with the discussion about the role of intellectuals as producers of ideology. In the third semester, written materials will not be required, except a short test (40 percent), but activity in class will be encouraged and highly evaluated (60 percent).

SECOND TRIMESTER (January 9. - March 14. 1996.)

1-2. The concept of ideology and the meaning of Left and Right

Mandatory readings:
Andrew Vincent: "The Nature of Ideology" In: Modern Political Ideologies. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. pp.1-21.
Terry Eagleton: Ideology. London-New York: Verso, 1991. pp.1-31.

Suggested readings:
Karl Mannheim: Ideology and Utopia. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972.

David McLellan: Ideology. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1986.

3-4. Liberalism

Mandatory readings:
Isaiah Berlin: "Two Concepts of Liberty" In: Michael J. Sandel (ed.): Liberalism and Its Critics. New York: New York University Press,1984. pp.15-36.
Ludwig von Mises: Liberalism in the Classical Tradition. San Francisco: Cobden Press, 1985. pp.18-59.
Barbara Goodwin: "Liberalism" Using Political Ideas. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1987. pp.33-60.

Suggested readings:
Friedrich A. Hayek: The Constitution of Liberty. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1960.
John Gray: Liberalism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986.
Anthony Arblaster: The Rise and Decline of Western Liberalism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

5-6. Conservatism

Mandatory readings:
Michael Oakeshott: "On Being Conservative" In: On Being Conservative and Other Essays. London Methuen, 1962. pp.168-196.
David Clarke: "The Conservative Faith in a Modern Age" In: Philip W. Buck How Conservatives Think , Harmodsworth: Pengvin, 1975 pp 165-173
Noel O'Sullivan: "Conservatism" In: Roger Eatwell-Anthony Wright (eds.): Contemporary Political Ideologies. London: Pinter, 1993. pp.50-77.

Suggested readings:
Edmund Burke: Reflections on the French Revolution. Baltimore: Penguin, 1969.
Karl Mannheim: "Conservative Thought" In: Essays on Sociology and Social Psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1953.
Robert Nisbet: Conservatism: Dream and Reality. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1986.

7-8. Socialism/Communism

Mandatory readings:
Karl Marx - Friedrich Engels: "Manifesto of the Communist Party" In: Robert C.Tucker (ed.): The Marx-Engels Reader. New York-London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1978. pp.469-500.
Adam Przeworski: "Social Democracy as a Historical Phenomenon" New Left Review, No.122. July-August 1980. pp.27-58.
R.N. Berki: "What Is Socialism?" In: Socialism. New York: St.Martin's Press, 1975. pp.9-38.

Suggested readings:
Alexander Gray: The Socialist Tradition. London: Longmans, 1963.
John Plamenatz: Man and Society. Vol.2. London: Longmans, 1963.
Bernard Crick: Socialism. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1987.
Leszek Kolakowski: Main Currents of Marxism. Vol.1-3. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.


10. Anarchism

Mandatory readings:
Mihail Bakunin: "Statism and Anarchy" (excerpts) In: Sam Dolgoff (ed.): Bakunin on Anarchism. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1980. pp.323-350.
Jeno Henrik Schmitt: "What Do We Want?" In: J.M.Bak-A.Bozoki-M.Sukosd (eds. ): Liberty and Socialism. Savage: Rowman & Littlefield, 1991. pp.9-19.
Robert Paul Wolff: In Defense of Anarchism. New York-London: Harper & Row, 1970. pp.69-82.
Jeremy Jennings: "Anarchism" In: Roger Eatwell-Anthony Wright (eds.) Contemporary Political Ideologies. London: Pinter, 1993. pp.127-146

Suggested readings:
George Woodcock (ed.): The Anarchist Reader. London: Fontana, 1977.
Peter Marshall: Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. London: Fontana, 1992.

11-12. Nationalism

Mandatory readings:
Anthony D. Smith: "Definitions" In: Theories of Nationalism. London: Duckworth, 1971. pp.153-191.
Ernest Gellner: Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. (Chapter 7. "A Typology of Nationalisms" pp.88-109. Chapter 9. "Nationalism and Ideology" pp.123-136.
Andrew Heywood: "Nationalism" In: Political Ideologies. London: Macmillan, 1992. pp.136-170.

Suggested readings:
Kenneth R. Minogue: Nationalism. London: Batsford, 1967.
Benedict Anderson: Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983.
Elie Kedourie: Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

13. Problems of Contemporary Nationalism in Eastern and Central Europe

Mandatory readings:
George Schopflin: "Nationalism and National Minorities in East and Central Europe" Journal of International Affairs, Vol.45. No.1. Summer 1991. pp.51-65.
Rogers Brubaker: "National Minorities, Nationalizing States and External National Minorities in the New Europe" Daedalus, Vol.124. No.2. Spring 1995. pp.107-132.

Suggested readings:
Liah Greenfeld: Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992. (especially the chapters about Russia and Germany)
James G. Kellas: The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity. London: MacMillan, 1991

14. MIDTERM TEST. (February 22.)

15-16. Fascism/National Socialism

Mandatory readings:
Giovanni Gentile: "The Philosophic Basis of Fascism" Foreign Affairs, Vol.6. No.2. 1928. pp 290-304.
Murphy-Stevens-Trivers-Roland: "National Socialism" In: Readings on Fascism and National Socialism. London: Swallow Press, 1952. pp.62-107.
Andrew Vincent: "Fascism" In: Modern Political Ideologies. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. pp 141-171.

Suggested readings:
Roger Griffin: The Nature of Fascism. London: Routledge, 1993.
Walter Laqueur (ed. ): Fascism: A Reader's Guide. Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1978.
Ernst Nolte: Three Faces of Fascism , London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1965
Eugene Weber: Varieties of Fascism, New York: Van Nostrand, 1964.

17-18. Populism

Mandatory readings:
Andreas Boeckh: " Populism in Latin America: Economic Crises and the Rise of New Development Coalitions" Working Paper #1. CEU, Dept. of Political Science, Budapest, 1993.
Andras Bozoki: "An Outline of Three Populisms: United States, Argentina and Hungary" Working Paper #5. CEU, Dept. of Political Science, 1994

Suggested readings:
Margaret Canovan Populism. New York-London: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovic h, 1981.
Ghita Ionescu - Ernest Gellner (eds): Populism: Its Meaning and National Characteristics, London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1969.
Norman Pollack (ed. ): The Populist Mind. Indianapolis-New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Co. Inc., 1967.
George B. Tindall (ed.): "A Populist Reader." New York: Harper & Row, 1966.

19-20. Democratic Theories

Mandatory readings:
Joseph A. Schumpeter: "Another Theory of Democracy" In: Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper & Row, 1950. pp.269-283.
Jack L.Walker: "A Critique of the Elitist Theory of Democracy" The American Political Science Review, Vol.60. No.2. June 1966. pp.285-295.
Peter Bachrach: "Interest, Participation and Democratic Theory" In: R. Pennock-J.W.Chapman (eds. ): Participation in Politics. NOMOS XVI. New York: Lieber-Atherton, 1975. pp.39-55.
Samuel P.Huntington: "The Modest Meaning of Democracy" In: Robert A Pastor (ed. ): Democracy in the Americas: Stopping the Pendulum. New York-London: Holmes & Meier, 1989. pp.11-28.

Suggested readings:
David Held: Models of Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1987.
Anthony Arblaster: Democracy. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1987.
Giovanni Sartori: The Theory of Democracy Revisited. Vol.1-2. Chatham: Chatham House, 1987.

Robert A. Dahl: Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven-London: Yale University Press, 1989.

(March 14: Deadline for the final essays.)

SPRING BREAK (March 15-24. 1996)

THIRD TRIMESTER (March 26. - May 2. 1996. )

1-2. Feminism

Mandatory readings:
Mary Wollstonecraft: "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman." (excerpts) In: Miriam Schneir (ed. ): Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings. New York: Vintage, 1994. pp.5-16.
Julia Kristeva: "Women's Time" In: N.O.Keohane-M.Z.Rosaldo-B.C.Gelpil (eds.): Feminist Theory: A Critique of Ideology. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1982. pp.31-53.
Caroline Ramazanoglu: "Feminism and the Contradictions of Oppression." London-New York: Routledge, 1993. pp.5-24.

Suggested readings:
Hester Eisenstein: Contemporal Feminist Thought. London-Sydney: Unwin, 1984.
Rosemarie Tong: Feminist Thought. London-Sydney: Unwin, 1989.
John Charvet: Feminism. London: Dent, 1982.
Catherine A. MacKinnon: Only Words. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.

3. Environmentalism/Ecologism

Mandatory readings:
J.Baird Callicott: "Non-Anthropocentric Value Theory and Environmental Ethics" American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol.21. No.4. October 1984. pp.299-309.
Charlene Spretnak-Fritjof Capra: Green Politics: A Global Promise. Santa Fe: Bear & Co., 1986. pp.29-56.
Andrew Vincent: "Ecologism" In: Modern Political Ideologies. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. pp.208-237.

Suggested readings:
James Lovelock: Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Andrew Dobson: "Green Political Thought." London: Harper Collins, 1991.

4-5. The New Left and the End of Ideology" Debate

Mandatory readings:
C.Wright Mills: "The New Left" In: Mills: Power, Politics and People. New York: Oxford University Press, 1963. pp.247-259.
Daniel & Gabriel Cohn-Bendit: "The Nature of the Communist Bureaucracy" In: Obsolete Communism: The Left Wing Alternative. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968. pp.170-195.
Raymond Aron: "The End of the Ideological Age?" In: Chaim I. Waxman (ed. ): The End of Ideology Debate. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1968. pp.27-48.
Seymour M. Lipset: "The End of Ideology?" In: op.cit. pp.69-86.
Daniel Bell: "The End of Ideology in the West" In: op.cit. pp.87-105.

Suggested readings:
Chaim I. Waxman (ed. ): The End of Ideology Debate. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1968.
C.Wright Mills: Power, Politics and People. New York: Oxford University Press, 1963.

6. The New Right and the "End of History"

Mandatory readings:
John Gray: "Conservatism, Individualism and the Political Thought of the New Right" In: Post-liberalism: Studies in Political Thought. New York-London: Routledge, 1993.
Francis Fukuyama: "End of History?" National Interest, Summer 19890

Suggested readings:
Irving Kristol: Reflections of a Neo-Conservative. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
David G. Green: The New Right. London: Wheatsheaf Books, 1987.
Allan Bloom: The Closing the American Mind. New York, 1987.

7. 'MIDTERM' TEST (April 16. )

8. After Ideology? Postmodernism

Mandatory Readings
Barry Smart: Postmodernity. London, Routledge, 1993, pp. 11-39.

Suggested readings:
Fredric Jameson: Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991.
Thomas Docherty (ed. ): Postmodernism: A Reader. New York-London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993.


9-10. The Role of Intellectuals: Some Classic Approaches

Mandatory readings:
Robert Michels: "Intellectuals" In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, 1937. pp.118-125.
Antonio Gramsci: "The Intellectuals" In: Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1971. pp.5-23.
Max J. Skidmore: "Managerialism" In: Ideologies: Politics in Action. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1993. pp.189-217.

Suggested readings:
Karl Mannheim: "The Problem of the Intelligentsia" In: Mannheim: Essays on the Sociology of Culture. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1956. pp.91-170.
Martin Malia: "What Is the Intelligentsia?" In: Richard Pipes (ed. ): The Russian Intelligentsia. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961. pp.1-18.

11-12 The Role of Intellectuals: More Recent Explanations

Mandatory readings:
Alvin Gouldner: "Prologue to a Theory of Revolutionary Intellectuals" Telos, No.26. Winter 1975-76. pp.3-36.
Daniel Bell: "The New Class: A Muddled Concept" In: Bell: The Winding Passage. New York: Basic Books, 1980. pp.144-164.
Zygmunt Bauman: "Legislators and Interpreters: Culture as the Ideology of Intellectuals" In: Bauman: Intimations of Postmodernity. London New York: Routledge, 1992. pp.1-25.

Suggested readings:
George Konrad - Ivan Szelenyi: The Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power. New York-London: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1979.
Alvin Gouldner: The Future of Intellectuals and the Rise of a New Class. New York: Seabury Press, 1979.
Ron Eyerman - Andrew Jamison: Social Movements: A Cognitive Approach. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991. chapter 4. "Social Movements and their Intellectuals" pp.94-119.


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Modified: May, 1996

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