NATIONALISM IN THE CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ARENA
Winter Term 1995
Troy McGrath
Department of European Studies
Central European University


Course Outline

This class is designed as a one-term course in the theoretical development of the study of nationalism, as it pertains to contemporary issues in International Politics. While the course focuses upon theoretical issues and debates, specific case studies will be treated in the course readings, and hence in the lectures and class discussions. The lectures and discussions will cover various issue areas that affect nationalism, such as processes of democratisation and economic modernisation. To a certain degree, the historical context of the development of nationalism will be included in the readings and lectures in order to acquaint students with selected issues and problems. Attendance at lectures is mandatory, as is completion of the assigned reading. Participation in discussion is strongly urged.

Week 1: Origins of Nationalism

When and how did the Nation arise? When did ethnic or national groups become politically significant? Are ethnicity and nationality old or new forms of political allegiance? What conditions favour/undermine nationalism and the politicisation of ethnicity?

Required Reading
Anthony Smith, Ethnic Origins, chapters 3 - 7.
Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism, chapter 2.
M. Sahlins, "The Segmentary Lineage: Instrument of Predatory Expansion", American Anthropologist, volume 63, 1961, pp. 322 - 345.

Supplementary Reading
John Armstrong, Nations Before Nationalism.
Gale Stokes, "Class and Nation", East European Politics and Societies, Winter 1990.
N. Glazer and D. Moynihan, Ethnicity.

Week 2: Theoretical and Analytical Approaches to Nationalism
Required Reading
A. Smith, "The Origins of Nations", Oxford International Review, Winter 1993.
M. Hechter, "Nationalism as Group Solidarity", Ethnic and Racial Studies, October 1987, pp. 415 - 426.
E. Hobsbawm and T. Ranger, The Invention of Tradition, chapters 1 - 2.
Walker Connor, "A Nation is a Nation, is a State...", Ethnic and Racial Studies, volume 1, no. 4, 1978.
J. Breuilly, "Reflections on Nationalism", Philosophy of the Social Sciences, March 1985, pp. 65 - 75.
Joseph Rothschild, Ethnopolitics, introduction and chapter 1.

Supplementary Reading

Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, passim.
Vernon Van Dyke, "The Individual, the State, and Ethnic Communities in Political Theory", World Politics, volume 29, no. 3, April 1977, pp. 343 - 369.
Walker Connor, "Ethnonationalism", in S. Huntington and M. Weiner, Understanding Political Development.
Ernest Renan, "What is a Nation?" in Homi Babha, ed., Nation and Narration.
R. Rogowski, "Causes and Varieties of Nationalism: A Rationalist Account", in Edward Tiryakian and R. Rogowski, New Nationalisms in the Developed West.
O. Patterson, "Context and Choice in Ethnic Allegiance", in N. Glazer and D. Moynihan, Ethnicity.

Week 3: War, State-Building, Military Mobilisation and Nationalism
How will state-building and military mobilisation in the anarchical post-Soviet international system affect the relationship between nationalism and war?

Required Reading
Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital and European States, chapters 3 - 4.
B. Posen, "Nationalism, the Mass Army, and Military Power", copies to be supplied
A. Smith, "War and Ethnicity: The Role of Warfare in the Formation, Self-Images, and Cohesion of Ethnic Communities", Ethnic and Racial Studies, volume 4, 1981.

Supplementary Reading
D. Waller, "Ethnic Mobilisation and Geopolitics in the Soviet Union", Journal of Political and Military Sociology, Summer 1992.
Cynthia Enloe, Ethnic Soldiers: State Security in Divided Societies.
Anthony Smith, "Ethnic Identity and Territorial Nationalism in Comparative Perspective", in Alex Motyl, Thinking Theoretically About Nationalism, chapter 3.

Week 4: Economic Modernisation and Change as a Cause of Nationalism

What are the "Nationalism" implications of industrialisation, shock therapy, sudden exposure to world trade, and abrupt economic adjustments for contemporary economic policy choices?

Required Reading
E. Gellner, Nations and Nationalism, chapters 3 - 4, 8.
K. Polanyi, The Great Transformation, chapter 19.
F. Nielson, "Toward a Theory of Ethnic Solidarity in Modern Societies", American Sociological Review, Ajpril 1985, pp. 133 - 149.
Walker Connor, "Eco- or Ethno-Nationalism", Ethnic and Racial Studies, volume 7, 1984.

Supplementary Reading

S. Newman, "Does Modernisation Breed Ethnic Conflict?", World Politics, April 1991, pp. 451 - 478.
T. Gurr, Minorities at Risk, chapters 2 - 4.
T. Nairn, The Break-up of Britain.
Anthony Mughan, "Moderation, Deprivation, and the Distribution of Power Resources: Toward a Theory of Ethnic Conflict", New Community, volume 5, no. 4, Spring-Summer 1977, pp. 360 - 370.
Robert Melson and Howard Wolpe, "Modernisation and the Politics of Communalism: A Theoretical Perspective", APSR, volume 64, no. 4, December 1970, pp. 1112 - 1130

Week 5: Democratisation and Nationalism
Nationalism has been associated with the idea of popular sovereignty, while increase in mass involvement in politics has been linked with aggressive nationalism. What effect will democratisation have on nationalism in newly-emerging states and those emerging from Soviet/Communist domination?

Required Reading
Liah Greenfeld, "Nationalism and Democracy", forthcoming article in Democracy and Society.
S. Hoffmann, "The Passion of Modernity", Atlantic, August 1993, pp. 101 - 108.
J. Linz and A. Stepan, "Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia", Daedalus, Spring 1992.
V. Zaslavsky, "Nationalism and Democratic Transition in Post-Communist Societies", Daedalus, Spring 1992, pp. 97 - 122.

Supplementary Reading
Donald Horowitz, A Democratic South Africa? Constitutional Engineering in a Divided Society, chapters 5 - 6.
Liah Greenfeld, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity.
Hurst Hannum, Autonomy, Sovereignty and Self-Determination.
Stephen James, "Georgia: Failed Democratic Transition", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States.


Week 6: The Nationalist Revival and International Conflict

Nationalism and Hypernationalism: definitions, types, causes, consequences. Today s nationalism: implications for international relations. When is nationality the most salient criterion for forming political groups? What does international relations theory have to contribute to an understanding of contemporary nationalist conflict?

Required Reading
Myron Weiner, "The Macedonian Syndrome", World Politics, volume 23, no. 4, July 1971.
B. Posen, "The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict", Survival, Spring 1993 (also in M. Brown, ed., Ethnic Conflict and International Security).
D. Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict, chapter 2, and passim.
E. Gellner, "Nationalism in the Vacuum", in A. Motyl, Thinking Theoretically About Nationalism.
Mark Juergensmeyer, The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State, chapter 1.

Supplementary Reading
E. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism Since 1780, chapters 1 - 3, 6.
Daedalus, Special Issue on Nationalism, Summer 1993: Articles by Gellner, Greenfeld, Tilly, Verdery, Nairn, Hall, and Mann.
Miroslav Hroch, Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe.
James Mayall, Nationalism and International Society.
Milton Esman, Ethnic Conflict in the Western World, chapters 1 - 2.


Week 7: Global Change and the Future of Nationalism

How will emerging global trends in the realms of economics, culture, or security affect the future of nationalism?

Required Reading

Jack Snyder, "Nationalism and the Crisis of the Post-Soviet State", in M. Brown, Ethnic Conflict and International Security.
Anthony Smith, "The Supercession of Nationalism?", International Journal of Comparative Sociology, volume 31, nos. 1 - 2, January - April 1990.
John G. Ruggie, "Territoriality and Beyond", International Organisation, Winter 1993.
Samuel Huntington, "The Clash of Civilisations", Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993, pp. 23 - 49.
S. Rudolph and L. Rudolph, "Modern Hate", New Republic, 22 March 1993.

Supplementary Reading
A. Richmond, "Ethnic Nationalism and Post-Industrialism", Ethnic and Racial Studies, January 1984.
Aleksa Djilas, "A Profile of Slobodan Milosevic", Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993, pp. 81 - 96.
Paul Kennedy, "The Decline of the Nationalistic History in the West 1900 - 1970", Journal of Contemporary History, January 1973, pp. 77 - 100.
E. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism Since 1780, chapter 6.
E. Gellner, Nations and Nationalism, chapter 8.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anderson, B., Imagined Communities.
Armstrong, J., Nations Before Nationals.
Azrael, J., ed., Migration Within and From the Former USSR.
Babha, H., ed., Nation and Narration.
Bremmer, I., Taras, R., eds., Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States.
Breuilly, J., "Reflections on Nationalism," Philosophy of the Social Sciences, March 1985.
Brown, M., Ethnic Conflict and International Security.
Brubaker, R., "Aftermaths of Empire and the Unmixing of Peoples: Historical and Comparative Perspective," in Izrael, J., ed., Migration Within and From the Former USSR.
Connor, W., "Eco- or Ethno-Nationalism," Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 7, 1984.
Connor, W., "Ethnonationalism." in Huntington, S. and Weiner, M., Understanding Political Development.
Connor, W., "A Nation is a Nation, is a State..."Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. I, No. 4, 1987.
Daedalus, Special Issue of Nationalism, Summer 1993: Articles by Gellner, Greenfeld, Tilly, Verdery, Nairn, Hall and Mann.
Djilas, A., "A Profile of Slobodan Milosevic," Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993.
Enloe, C., Ethnic Soldiers: State Security in Divided Societies.
Esman, M., Ethnic Conflict in the Western World.
Gellner, E., "Nationalis in the Vacuum," in Motyl, A., Thinking Theoretically about Nationalism.
Gellner, E., Nations and Nationalism.
Glazer, N. and Moynihan, D., Ethnicity.
Greenfeld, L., "Nationalism and Democracy," forthcoming article in Democracy and Society.
Greenfeld, L., Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity.
Gurr, T., Minorities at Risk.
Hannum, H., Authonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination.
Hetcher, M., "Nationalism as Group Solidarity," Ethnic and Racial Studies, October 1987.
Hobsbawm, E., Nations and Nationalism since 1780.
Hobsbawm, E. and Ranger, T., The Invention of Tradition.
Hoffman, S., "The Passion of Modernity," Atlantic, August 1993.
Hopf, T., "Managing Soviet Disintegration," International Security, Summer 1992.
Horowitz, D., A Democratic South Africa? Constitutional Engineering in a Divided Society.
Horovitz, D., Ethnic Groups in Conflict.
Hroch, M., Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe.
Huntington, S., "The Clash of Civilisations," Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993.
Huntington, S. and Weiner, M., Understanding Political Development.
James, S., "Georgia: Failed Democratic Transition," in Bremmer, I. and Taras, R., eds., Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States.
Juergensmeyer, M., The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State.
Kennedy, P., "The Decline of the Nationalistic History in the West, 1900-1970," Journal of Contemporary History, Januar 1973.
Lintz, J. and Stepan, A., "Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia," Daedalus, Spring 1992.
Lustick, I., "Stability in Deeply Divided Societies: Consociationalism versus Control," World Politics, Vol. 31, 1979.
Mayall, J., Nationalism and International Society.
Melson, R. and Wolpe, H., "Modernisation and the Politics of Communalism: a Theoretical Perspective," APSR, Vol. 64, No. 4, December 1970.
Motyl, A., Thinking Theoretically About Nationalism.
Mughan, A., "Moderation, Deprivation, and the Distribution of Power Resourses: Toward a Theory of Ethnic Conflict," New Community, Vol. V, No. 4, Spring-Summer 1977.
Nairn, T., The Break-up of Britain.
Newhouse, J., "The Diplomatic Round," New Yorker, 24 August1992.
Newman, S., "Does Modernisation Breed Ethnic Conflict?" World Politics, April 1985.
Nielson, F., "Toward a Theory of Ethnic Solidarity in Modern Societies," American Sociological Review, April 1985. ,"
Nordlinger, E., Conflict Regulations in Divided Societies, Harvard University Centre for International Affairs, Occasional Paper No. 29, 1972.
Patterson, "Context and Choice in Ethnic Allegiance," in Glazer, N., and Moynihan, D., Ethnicity.
Polanyi, K., The Great Transformation.
Posen, B., "Nationalism, the Mass Army, and Millitary Power," Xerox copies...
Posen, B., "The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict," Survival, Spring 1993.
Renan, E., "What is a Nation?" in Babha, H., ed., Nation and Narration.
Richmond, A., "Ethnic Nationalism and Post-Industrialism," Ethnic and Racial Studies, January 1984.
Rogowski, R., "Causes and Varieties of Nationalism: A Rationalist Account," in Tiryakian, E. and Rogowski R., New Nationalisms in the Developed West.
Rudolph, S. and Rudolph L., Modern Hate," New Republic, 22 March 1993.
Ruggie, J. G., "Territoriality and Beyond," International Organisation, Winter 1993.
Rothschild, J., Ethnopolitics.
Sahlins, M., "The Segmentary Lineage: Instrument of Predatory Expansion," American Anthropologist, Vol. 63, 1961.
Smith, A., "Ethnic Identity and Territorial Nationalism in Comparative Perspective," in Motyl, A., Thinking Theoretically About Nationalism.
Smith, A., Ethnic Origins.
Smith, A., "National Identity and European Unification," International Affairs, Vol. 69, No. 1, January 1992.
Smith, A., "The Origins of Nations," Oxford International Review, Winter 1993.
Smith, A., "The Supercession of Nationalism?" International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 31, No. 1-2, January-April 1990.
Smith, A., "War and Ethnicity: The Role of Warfare in the Formation, Self-Images, and Cohesion of Ethnic Communities," Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 4, 1981.
Snyder, J., "Nationalism and the Crisis of the Post-Soviet State," in Brown, M., Ethnic Conflict and International Security.
Stokes, G., "Class and Nation," East European Politics and Societies, Winter 1990.
Tilly, C., Coercion, Capital, and European States.
Tiryakian, E. and Rogowski, R., New Nationalism in the Developed West.
Van Dyke, V., "The Individual, the State, and Ethnic Communities in Political Theory," World Politics, Vol. 29, No. 3, April 1977.
Van Evera, S., "Managing the Eastern Crisis: Preventing War in the Former Soviet Empire,"Security Studies, Spring 1992.
Waller, D., "Ethnic Mobilisation and Geopolitics in the Soviet Union," Journal of Political and Military Sociology, Summer 1992.
Weiner, M., "The Macedonian Syndrome," World Politics, Vol. 23, No. 4, July 1971.
Zaslavsky, V.,"Nationalism and Democratic Transition in Post-Communist societies," Daedalus, Spring 1992.



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