History and Politics of Central and Eastern Europe
Fall Term 1994
Troy McGrath
Department of European Studies
Central European University



Course Aims and Objectives

The aim of this course is to familiarize students with the proper historical context that belies to contemporary political, social, and economic issues and problems that beset the region. Although the course is divided chronologically, certain themes such as as the nature of communist rule, the influence of nationalism, and the role of minorities, transcend the chronological framework and are dealt with in each time period. Each week the class will meet twice: the first meeting will be a general lecture which incorporates and synthesizes the pertineut issues and events of each time period, while the second meeting will be a discussion seminar which focuses upon more specific aspects of the time period under examination.

Students are asked to write a number of short essays during the term: some of which examine issues during one historical phase, and others which call for a analytical comparisons over time. An example of the first type of essay would be: "Discuss the implementation of the process of DeStalinization in any of the countries in the region, including when it occured, why it occured in the manner it did, and what the consequences were." An example of the second type of essay would be: "Compare the revolts of 1956 and 1968," or "Compare the Prague Spring of 1968 with the Velvet Revolution of November 1989." Some of the topics will be assigned, others will involve choices.

In fulfilling the essay requirement, students will NOT be permitted to write about their own country in order to fulfill this requirement. Also, each essay must deal with a different country or national group. The purpose of these essay/topic guidelines is for students to broaden their understanding of East Central Europe, and not specialize in only one state national group.

Optional Background Reading

Seton-Watson, H., Eastern Europe Between the World Wars: 1918-41:
Geographical Background, pp. 1-10
Early History, pp. 11-34
Modern Times, pp. 35-74
Kaplan, R, Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993, passim.
McCagg W.O.Jr, A History of Habsburg Jews: 1670-1918: Part IV "The Catastrophes,1875-1918", pp.161-226
Jelavich, B., History of the Balkans:
Volume I: The Ottoman System, pp.39-62
The Crimean War, pp.264-87
Volume II:Balkan National Monarchies
Romania, pp.23-28
Serbia, pp.28-33
Montenegro, pp.34-37
Bulgaria, pp.37-40
World War I, pp.106-33
Kann, R.A. and David, Z.V., The People of the Eastern Habsburg Lands, 1526-1918
The Czechs, pp.292-327
The Slovenes, pp.327-344
The Magyars, pp.344-375
The Slovaks, pp.375-392
The Croats, pp.392-415
The Ruthenians, pp.415-425
The Serbs, pp.425-438
The Romanians, pp.438-446
Polakans, A., "Peasants, Intellectuals and Nationalism in the Russian Baltic Provinces, 1820-1890," in Journal of Modern History, 46, 1974, pp.445-75
Stavrianos, L.S., The Balkans Since 1453:
Part V. "Age of Imperialism and Capitalism: 1878-1914"
Dynamics of Balkan Politics:1878-1914, pp.413-24
Making of Bulgaria: 1878-1914, pp.425-47
Serbia and the South Slavs: 1878-1914, pp.448-66
Greece and Romania: 1878-1914, pp.467-95
Albanian Awakening to 1914, pp.496-512
Diplomatic Developments: 1878-1914, pp.513-43

Week I:The Historical Legacy: Interwar East Central Europe: 1918-1939

Required Readings:
The Stavrianos chapter on Greece, and either Rotschild or Seaton-Watson.
Stavrianos, L.S., The Balkan Since 1453:
Greece: 1918-1939, pp.661-687
Rotschild, J., East-Central Europe Between the Two World Wars:
Albania, pp.356-66
Baltic States, pp.367-81
Bulgaria, pp.323-55
Czechoslovakia, pp.73-135
Hungary, pp.136-199
Poland, pp.26-72
Romania, pp.281-322
Yugoslavia, pp.200-280
or

Seton-Watson, H., Eastern Europe Between the World Wars: 1918-41:
Political Experience, 1918-39, pp.157-267
Minorities and Mixed Populations, pp.268-319
Small-Power Imperialism, pp. 320-361

Supplementary Reading:
Mendelsohn, E., The Jews of East Central Europe Between the World Wars, Bloomington, 1983
Stanley Vardys, V. and Misiunas, R.J., eds., The Baltic States in Peace and War, 1917-45, Penn. State University Press, 1978
Stavrianos, L.S., The Balkans Since 1453: Age of War and Crisis: pp.545-838

Week II: The War and Its Consequences: 1939-1947
Rotschild J., Return to Diversity:
World War II, and The Communists Come to Power, pp.25-123
Stavrianos, L.S., The Balkans Since 1453:
Occupied Greece, pp.785-95
Stokes, G., ed., From Stalinism to Pluralism:
Yalta, Spheres of Influences, The Truman Doctrine, and The Two-Camp Policy. pp.12-42

Supplementary Reading:
Seton-Watson, H., Eastern Europe Between the World Wars:1918-41:
The Conquest of Eastern Europe, pp.397-412
Misiunas, R.J. and Taagepera, R., eds., The Baltic States: Years of Dependence, 1940-80:
The War Years, pp.15-73

Week III-IV: The Communists Come to Power: 1948-56
Hammond, T., ed., The Anatomy of Communist Takeovers:
Chapters by Shoup, Peters, Fischer-Galati, Oren, Lotarski, Ignotus, and Tigrid
Rotschild, J., Return to Diversity: "The Dialectics of Stalinism and Titoism," pp.125-46
Stokes, G., ed., From Stalinism to Pluralism:
Tito-Stalin Correspondence, 1948, pp.58-65
The Trial of Lasylo Rajk,
The Slansky Trial, pp.67-77

Supplementary Reading:
Childs, D., The GDR: Moscow's German Ally:
In the Beginning, 1946-53, pp. 1-34
Misiunas, R.M., and R. Taagepera, eds., The Baltic States:
Postwar Stalinism, 1945-53, pp.74-125
Bader W., Austria Between East and West: 1945-1955, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966

Week V Destalinization
Brzezinski, Y., The Soviet Bloc,
The New Course, pp. 155-84
The Impact of Yugoslavia, pp. 185-209
Hungary: The Test Case of National Communism, pp.210-38
The Polish October, pp. 239-68
Stokes, G., ed., From Stalinism to Pluralism,
Reform Communism, [Imre Nagy],pp. 82-87
The New Class, [Milovjan Djilas], pp. 101-106
The Kuron-Modzelewski Open Letter to the Party,pp.108-14
Gati, Ch., Hungary and the Soviet Bloc,
Part Two: "Revolution and Reform," pp.127-76

Week VI National Reassertment in East Central Europe: 1956-1968
Rotschild, J., Return to Diversity:
Revenge of the Repressed: ECE Reasserts Itself, pp.147-190
Brown, J.F., Eastern European and Communst Rule:
The Course of Political Development, pp.1-29
Soviet-East European Relations, pp.30-61
Relations with the Weats and the Impact of Detente, pp.62-112
An Economic Overview, pp. 113-134

Supplementary reading:
Cjhilds, D., The GDR: Moscow's German Ally:
From the "New Course" to the Berlin Wall, pp.37-65
In From the Cold, 1962-76, pp.67-95
Misiunas and R. Taagepera, eds., The Baltic States:
The Re-emergence of National Cultures, 1954-68, pp.126-94

Weeks VII-VIII The Precarious Stalemate: 1968-89
Required reading:
The Remet chapters, and EITHER Rotschild or Brown:
Dissent and Parallel Societies in the 1980's, pp.35-129
Current Trends, pp.257-346
Brown, J.F., Eastern Europe and Communist Rule:
Albania, pp.371-83
Bulgaria, pp.316-35
Czechoslovakia, pp.294-315
GDR, pp.230-62
Hungary, pp.200-229
Poland, pp.158-199
Romania, pp.263-293
Yugoslavia, pp.336-370
or
Rotschild, J., Return to Diversity:
A Precarious Stalemate, pp.191-225
Stoke, G., ed., From Stalinism to Pluralism: pp.150-252

Supplementary reading:
Heitlinger, A., Women and State Socialism: Sex Inequality in the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia, London: MacMillan, 1979
Childs, D., The GDR: Moscow's German Ally: pp.97-17, 250-68, 320-44
Misiunas, R.J. and R. Taagepera, eds., The Baltic States:
Centralization and Westernization, 1968-80, pp.195-259
Appendices A and B, pp.267-98

Week IX The Revolutions of 1989 and Beyond
Glenny, M., The Rebirth of History:
Albania: The Final Frontier, pp.143-63
Bulgaria: The Delicate Flower, pp.164-82
Czechoslovakia: The Glorious Revolution, pp.22-49
Hungary: The Politics of Backwardness, pp.72-95
Poland: The History Men, pp.50-71
Romania: The Frying Pan and the Fire, pp.96-117
Yugoslavia: The Tragedy of Revenge, pp.118-42
Stokes, G., The Walls Came Tumbling Down:
1990 and 1991: The First Two Years of a Long Time,
The Disintegration of Yugoslavia, pp.168-252
East, R., Revolutions in Eastern Europe:
Albania, pp.7-19
Bulgaria, pp.20-37
Czechoslovakia, pp.38-61
East Germany, pp.62-86
Hungary, pp.87-106
Poland, pp.107-34
Romania, pp.135-55
Yugoslavia, pp.156-69
Stokes, G., ed., From Stalinism to Pluralism, pp.253-267

Supplementary Reading:
Ash, T.G., The Magic Latern, New York: Random House, 1990, passim
Kaplan, R., Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History, New York St. Martin's Press, 1993, passim

Bibliography
Bader, W., Austria Between East and West:1945-1955, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966
Brzezinski, Z., The Soviet Bloc: Unity and Conflict, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960 and 1967
Childs, D., The GDR: Moscow's German Ally, London: Unwin Hyman, 1983 & 1988
East, R., Revolutions in Eastern Europe, London: Pinter Publishers, 1992
Gati, Ch., Hungary and the Soviet Bloc, Durham: Duke University Press, 1986
Glenny, M., The Rebirth of History: Eastern Europe in the Age of Democracy, London: Penguin Books, 1990
Hammond T., ed., The Anatomy of Communist Takeovers, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975
Kann, R.A. and David, Z.V., The Peoples of the Eastern Habsburg Lands, 1526-1918, Volume VI of Sugar & D.Treadgold, eds., A History of East Central Europe
Jelavich B., History of the Balkans:, Volume I, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, and Volume II, The Twentieth Century, Cambridge: Cambridge Press, 1983
Kaplan, R., Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History, New York, St. Martin's Press, 1993
McCagg, W.O.Jr., A History of Habsburg Jews: 1670-1918, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989
Mendelsohn, E., The Jews of East Central Europe Between the World Wars, Bloominghton, 1983
Misiunas, R.J. and R. Taagepera, eds., The Baltic States: Years of Dependence, 1940-80, London: C. Hurst & Co., 1983
Plakans, A., "Peasants, Intellectuals and Nationalism in the Russian Baltic Provinces, 1820-1890," in Journal of Modern History, 46, 1974, pp.445-75
Ramet, S., Social Currents in Eastern Europe, Durham: Duke University Press, 1991
Rotschild, J., Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe Since World War II, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989
Seton-Watson, H., Eastern Europe Between the World Wars: 1918-1941, Boulder: Westview Press, 1982
Stokes, G., ed., From Stalinism to Pluralism: A Documentary History of Eastern Europe Since 1945, New York: Oxford University Press, 1991
Stokes, G., The Walls Came Tumbling Down, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993
Vardys, V.S. and Misiunas, J., eds., The Baltic States in Peace and War, 1917-45, Penn. State Univerity Press, 1978
Stavrianos, L.S., The Balkans Since 1453: Age of War and Crisis, pp.545-838


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Modified: April, 1996


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