DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION IN EUROPEAN CONTEXT
Winter Term 1996
Troy McGrath
Department of International Relations and European Studies
Central European University


Course Description

The course deals with the theoretical development of the study of transitions to democracy, pertaining to both Western and Eastern Europe in the post-war era. The lectures and discussions will cover various issues that affect democratic transitions, such as elite transformation and economic modernization. Attendance at lectures is mandatory, as are the assigned readings. Participation in discussion is strongly urged. In addition, each student must complete the following assignments:

1) One 1000 - 2000 word case study on one of the following transitions:
Spain, Italy, Portugal, or Greece;
2) An 800 - 1500 word critique (review) of an article (to be agreed with the instructor);
3) An essay on one specific issue or case study of democratic transition, with a length of approximately 4000 - 6000 words.

Essay topics for the papers must be approved by the instructor ahead of time. The purpose of these assignments is for students to broaden their understanding of the contemporary issues and processes associated with transitions to democracy.

Week 1: Issues, Concepts, Definitions
Terminological clarification of key terms such as: transition, democracy, democratization, legitimacy, and liberalization. Definitional issues, outline of disagreements within the debate about democratization.

Required Reading:
Philippe Schmitter and Terry Lynn Karl, "What Democracy is...and is Not," Journal of Democracy, Volume 2, No. 3, Summer 1991, pp. 75-87.
Alfred Stepan, "On the Tasks of a Democratic Opposition," Journal of Democracy, Volume 1, No. 2, Spring 1990, pp. 41-49.
Robert Dahl, "Democratization and Public Opposition," in Polyarchy, pp. 1-16.

Optional Reading:
Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966), passim.

Week 2: Democratization and Political Change
Democracy, Democratization, and Political Change; Issues of Legitimacy; Structure and Process; How Countries Democratize.

Required Reading:
Dankwart Rustow, "Transition to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model," Comparative Politics, Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 337-363.
Samuel Huntington, "How Countries Democratize," Political Science Quarterly, Volume 106, 1992, pp. 579-616.
Doh Chull Shin, "On the Third Wave of Democratization," World Politics, Volume 47, October 1994, pp. 135-170.

Optional Reading:
Robert Fishman, "Rethinking State and Regime: Southern Europe's Transition to Democracy," in World Politics, Volume 42, No. 3, April 1990.
L. Whitehead, "International Aspects of Democratization," in Guillermo O'Donnell, et al. in Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Prospects For Democracy, pp. 3-47.

Week 3: Democratic Transitions in Comparative Perspective
Typologies of Transition; Negotiation and the Retreat from Power; Models of Regime Transition; Dilemmas of Democratization.

Required Reading:
Adam Przeworski, "Some Problems in the Study of Transition to Democracy," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritrarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives, pp. 47-63.
Gerardo Munck, "Democratic Transitions in Comparative Perspective," [Review Article], Comparative Politics, April 1994, pp. 355-375.
Terry Lynn Karl, "Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America," Comparative Politics, Volume 23, 1990, pp. 1-21.
Herbert Kitschelt, "Comparative Historical Research and Rational Choice Theory: The Case of Transitions to Democracy," Theory and Society, Volume 22, No. 3, June 1993, pp. 413-29.

Optional Reading:
Geoffrey Pridham, "Comparative Perspectives on the New Mediterranean Democracies: A Model of Regime Transition?" in The New Mediterranean Democracies: Regime Transition in Spain, Greece and Portugal, pp. 1-29.

Case Study: SPAIN
Jose Maria Maravall and Julian Santamaria, "Political Change in Spain and the Prospects for Democracy," in O'Donnell, et al, Transitions From Authoritrarian Rule: Southern Europe, pp.71-108.
Richard Gunther, "Spain: The Very Model of Modern Elite Settlement," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe, pp. 38-80.
Kenneth Medhurst, "Spain's Evolutionary Pathway from Dictatorship to Democracy," and Mario Caciagli, "Spain: Parties and Party System in the Transition," in Geoffrey Pridham, The New
Mediterranean Democracies
, pp. 30-48, 84-98.
P. McDonough and S. Barnes, and A. Pina, "The Growth of Democratic Legitimacy in Spain," APSR, Volume 80, No. 3, September 1986.

Week 4: Democratic Consolidation and Re-Democratization
Impact of Prior Regime Type; Transition Through Regime Defeat; Redemocratization and Transition; Elections.

Required Reading:
Alfred Stepan, "Paths toward Redemocratization: Theoretical and Comparative Considerations," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives, pp. 64-84.
Philippe Schmitter, "An Introduction to Southern European Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Turkey," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritrarian Rule: Southern Europe, pp. 3-10.
Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan, "Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, The Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia," Daedelus, Volume 121, 1992, pp. 123-139.
Philippe Schmitter and Terry Lynn Karl, "The Conceptual Travels of Transitologists and Consolidologists," Slavic Review, Volume 53, No. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 173-85.
Geoffrey Pridham, Democratic Transitions in Theory and Practice: Southern European lessons for Eastern Europe, in Geoffrey Pridham and Tatu Vanhanen, Democratization in Eastern Europe, pp. 15-37

Case Studies: PORTUGAL AND GREECE
Kenneth Maxwell, "Regime Overthrow and the Prospects for Democratic Transition in Portugal," and P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, "Regime Change and the Prospects for Democracy in Greece: 1974-1983," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Southern Europe, pp. 109-137, and pp. 138-164.
Lawrence Graham, "Redefining the Portuguese Transition to Democracy," in Higley and Gunther,eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe, pp. 282-299.
Nancy Bermeo, "Redemocratization and Transition Elections: A Comparison of Spain and Portugal," in Comparative Politics, Volume 19, 1987, pp. 213-31.

Optional Reading:
Arend Lijhart, "Constitutional Choices for New Democracies," Journal of Democracy, Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter 1991, pp. 72-83.
Geoffrey Pridham, The New Mediterranean Democracies: Regime Transition in Spain, Greece and Portugal, passim.

Week 5: The Role of Elites
Elite Unification, Elite Bargaining, and Elite Transformation; Transition Through Extrication; Linkages Between Elites and Masses; Political Elites and Mass Mobilization

Required Reading:
George Kolankiewicz, "Elites in Search of a Political Formula," Daedalus, Vol. 123, No. 3, Summer 1994, pp. 143-57.
John Higley and Michael Burton, "The Elite Variable in Democratic Transitions and Breakdown," American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1989, pp. 17-32.
D. Share, "Transition to Democracy and Transition Through Transaction," Comparative Political Studies, Volume 19, (1987), pp. 525-548.
Baohui Zhang, "Corporatism, Totalitarianism, and Transitions to Democracy," Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, April 1994, pp. 108-136.

Case Study: ITALY
Gianfranco Pasquino, "The Demise of the First Fascist Regime and Italy's Transition to Democracy: 1943-1948," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritrarian Rule: Southern Europe, pp. 45-70.
Maurizio Cotta, "Elite Unification and Democratic Consolidation in Italy: A Historical Overview," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe, pp. 146-177.

Optional Reading:
Michael Burton, et al. "Introduction," and "Overview," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe, pp. 1-37, 323-348.
Eva Etzioni-Halevy, "The Autonomy of Elites and Transitions From Non-Democratic Regimes: The Cases of the Soviet Union and Poland," Research in Political Sociology, Volume 6, 1992, pp. 257-276.

Week 6: Liberalization and Democratization in the East Central European Context
Liberalization Processes and Perspectives on Democratization in East Central Europe: Historical Backdrop to Contemporary Processes and Developments;

Required Reading:
Andrew Arato, "Some Perspectives on Democratization in East Central Europe," Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 38, 1985, pp. 321-335.
Kenneth Jowitt, "The Concepts of Liberalization, Integration, and Rationalization in the Context of Eastern European Development," Studies in Comparative Communism, Vol. 4, 1971, pp. 79-92.
E. Comisso, "Market Failures and Market Socialism: Economic Problems of Transition," EEPS, Vol. 2, 1988, pp. 433-466.
A. Korbonski, "Comparing Liberalization Processes in Eastern Europe," Comparative Politics, Vol. 4, 1972, pp. 231-249.

Week 7: The Economics of Transitions in East Central Europe
Economic Aspects of the Contemporary Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe; Development and Pace of Privatization and Property Relations in the Region:

Required Reading:
Seymour Lipset, "Some Prerequisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy," APSR, Vol. 53, 1959.
Laura D'Andrea Tyson, "The Three Challenges of Economic Transition in Eastern Europe," in George Breslauer, ed., Dilemmas of Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
Roman Frydman and Andrzej Rapaczynski, Privatization in Eastern Europe: Is the State Withering Away?: "Markets and Institutions in Large-Scale Privatization: An Approach to Economic and Social Transformation in Eastern Europe," pp. 9-45. "Privatization and Corporate Governance: Can a Market Economy Be Designed?" pp. 46-74.

Optional Reading:
Adam Przeworski, Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), passim.

Case Studies: PRIVATIZATION IN THE REGION:
Roman Frydman, Andrzej Rapaczynski, John Earle, et al., The Privatization Process in Russia, Ukraine, and the Baltics, and The Privatization Process in Central Europe, both volumes (Budapest, CEU Press, 1993): Case Studies of the Baltics, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine.

Week 8: The Processes of Democratization in East Central Europe

Part I: Theoretical Aspects
Political Aspects of the Contemporary Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe; Development and Pace of Democratization in Region.

Required Reading:
Guiseppe Di Palma, "Why Democracy Can Work in Eastern Europe," Journal of Democracy, Vol. 2, No 1, Winter 1991, pp. 21-31.
Grzegorz Ekiert, "Democratization Processes in East Central Europe: A Theoretical Reconsideration," pp. 285-313.
Sarah Meiklejohn Terry, "Thinking About Post-Communist Transitions: How Different are They?" Slavic Review, Vol. 52, No. 2, Summer 1993, pp. 333-337.
Helga Welsh, "Political Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe," Comparative Politics, July 1994, pp. 379-394.
Dean McSweeney and Clive Tempest, "The Political Science of Democratic Transition in Eastern Europe," Political Studies, Vol. 41, 1993, pp. 408-419.

Case Studies: EAST CENTRAL EUROPE
Sten Berglund and Jan Ake Dellenbrant, eds., The New Democracies in Eastern Europe, (Cambridge: Edward Elgar, 1991).
Judy Batt, East Central Europe from Reform to Transformation, Economic Reform in the Crisis of Communist Rule, pp. 3-21. The End of Communist Rule, pp. 22-42. The Emergence of Pluralist Politics, pp. 43-71. The Politics of Economic Transformation, pp. 72-102.

Week 9: The Processes Of Democratization In East Central Europe

Part II: Political Aspects
Emerging party systems and institutions, founding elections.

Required Reading:
Maurizio Cotta, Building Party Systems after the Dictatorship, in Pridham and Vanhanen, Democratization in Eastern Europe, pp. 99-127.
Kimmo Kuusela, The Founding Electoral Systems in Eastern Europe, 1989-91, in Pridham and Vanhanen, Democratization in Eastern Europe, pp. 128-150
Paul Lewis, et al. The Emergence of Multi-Party Systems in East-Central Europe, in Pridham and Vanhanen, Democratization in Eastern Europe, pp. 151-190.

Week 10: The Processes Of Democratization In East Central Europe

Part III: Social Aspects
Socio-political Aspects of the Contemporary Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe; Development and Pace of Social Institutions: Rule of Law.

Required Reading:
Georgina Waylen, "Women and Democratization: Conceptualizing Gender Relations in Transition Politics," in World Politics, Volume 46, April 1994 , pp. 327-54.
Valerie Bunce and Maria Csandi, "Uncertainty in the Transition: Post-Communism in Hungary," EEPS, Vol. 7, No. 2, Spring 1993, pp. 240-275.
A. Walicki, "From Stalinism to Post-Communist Pluralism," New Left Review, No. 185, 1991.
Laszlo Bruszt, "Transformative Politics: Social Costs and Social Peace in East Central Europe," EEPS, Vol. 6, No. 1, Winter 1992, pp. 55-72.

Optional Reading:
George Breslauer, ed., Dilemmas of Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, (Berkeley: University of California Press: 1991): Chapters on East Central European Countries

Week 11: Democratization and Nationalism
Required Reading:
Joseph Rothschild, "Nationalism and Democratization in East Central Europe," Nationality Papers, Volume 22, No. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 27-34.
Victor Zaslavsky, "Nationalism and Democratic Transition in Postcommunist Societies," Daedalus Spring 1992, pp. 97-120.
Algis Prazauskas, "Ethnic Conflicts in the Context of Democratizing Political Systems, Theory and Society, Volume 20, 1991, pp. 581-602.
Renee de Nevers, "Democratization and Ethnic Conflict," in Michael Brown, ed., Ethnic Conflict and International Security, pp. 61-78.
J. Linz and A. Stepan, "Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia," Daedalus, Spring 1992, pp. 123-39.

Case Studies: FORMER SOVIET UNION
Michael Urban, "The Politics of Identity in Russia's Postcommunist Transition: The Nation Against Itself," Slavic Review, Volume 53, no. 3, Fall 1993, pp. 733-65.
Rogers Brubaker, "Nationhood and the National Question in the Soviet Union and post-Soviet Eurasia: An Institutionalist Account," Theory and Society, Volume 23, 1994, pp. 47-78.
S. Van Evera, "Managing the Eastern Crisis: Preventing War in the Former Soviet Empire," Security Studies, Spring 1992, pp. 361-381.




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Modified: April, 1996


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