The course deals with the theoretical development of the study of transitions to democracy, pertaining to both Western and Eastern Europe in the post-war era. The lectures and discussions will cover various issues that affect democratic transitions, such as elite transformation and economic modernization. Attendance at lectures is mandatory, as are the assigned readings. Participation in discussion is strongly urged. In addition, each student must complete the following assignments:
1) One 1000 - 2000 word case study on one of the following transitions:
Spain, Italy, Portugal, or Greece;
2) An 800 - 1500 word critique (review) of an article (to be agreed with the instructor);
3) An essay on one specific issue or case study of democratic transition, with a length of approximately 4000 - 6000 words.
Essay topics for the papers must be approved by the instructor ahead of time. The purpose of these assignments is for students to broaden their understanding of the contemporary issues and processes associated with transitions to democracy.
Week 1: Issues, Concepts, Definitions
Terminological clarification of key terms such as: transition, democracy, democratization, legitimacy, and liberalization. Definitional issues, outline of disagreements within the debate about democratization.
Philippe Schmitter and Terry Lynn Karl, "What Democracy is...and is Not," Journal of Democracy, Volume 2, No. 3, Summer 1991, pp. 75-87.
Alfred Stepan, "On the Tasks of a Democratic Opposition," Journal of Democracy, Volume 1, No. 2, Spring 1990, pp. 41-49.
Robert Dahl, "Democratization and Public Opposition," in Polyarchy, pp. 1-16.
Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966), passim.
Week 2: Democratization and Political Change
Democracy, Democratization, and Political Change; Issues of Legitimacy; Structure and Process; How Countries Democratize.
Dankwart Rustow, "Transition to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model," Comparative Politics, Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 337-363.
Samuel Huntington, "How Countries Democratize," Political Science Quarterly, Volume 106, 1992, pp. 579-616.
Doh Chull Shin, "On the Third Wave of Democratization," World Politics, Volume 47, October 1994, pp. 135-170.
Robert Fishman, "Rethinking State and Regime: Southern Europe's Transition to Democracy," in World Politics, Volume 42, No. 3, April 1990.
L. Whitehead, "International Aspects of Democratization," in Guillermo O'Donnell, et al. in Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Prospects For Democracy, pp. 3-47.
Week 3: Democratic Transitions in Comparative Perspective
Typologies of Transition; Negotiation and the Retreat from Power; Models of Regime Transition; Dilemmas of Democratization.
Adam Przeworski, "Some Problems in the Study of Transition to Democracy," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritrarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives, pp. 47-63.
Gerardo Munck, "Democratic Transitions in Comparative Perspective," [Review Article], Comparative Politics, April 1994, pp. 355-375.
Terry Lynn Karl, "Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America," Comparative Politics, Volume 23, 1990, pp. 1-21.
Herbert Kitschelt, "Comparative Historical Research and Rational Choice Theory: The Case of Transitions to Democracy," Theory and Society, Volume 22, No. 3, June 1993, pp. 413-29.
Geoffrey Pridham, "Comparative Perspectives on the New Mediterranean Democracies: A Model of Regime Transition?" in The New Mediterranean Democracies: Regime Transition in Spain, Greece and Portugal, pp. 1-29.
Week 4: Democratic Consolidation and Re-Democratization
Impact of Prior Regime Type; Transition Through Regime Defeat; Redemocratization and Transition; Elections.
Alfred Stepan, "Paths toward Redemocratization: Theoretical and Comparative Considerations," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives, pp. 64-84.
Philippe Schmitter, "An Introduction to Southern European Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Turkey," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritrarian Rule: Southern Europe, pp. 3-10.
Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan, "Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, The Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia," Daedelus, Volume 121, 1992, pp. 123-139.
Philippe Schmitter and Terry Lynn Karl, "The Conceptual Travels of Transitologists and Consolidologists," Slavic Review, Volume 53, No. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 173-85.
Geoffrey Pridham, Democratic Transitions in Theory and Practice: Southern European lessons for Eastern Europe, in Geoffrey Pridham and Tatu Vanhanen, Democratization in Eastern Europe, pp. 15-37
Arend Lijhart, "Constitutional Choices for New Democracies," Journal of Democracy, Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter 1991, pp. 72-83.
Geoffrey Pridham, The New Mediterranean Democracies: Regime Transition in Spain, Greece and Portugal, passim.
Week 5: The Role of Elites
Elite Unification, Elite Bargaining, and Elite Transformation; Transition Through Extrication; Linkages Between Elites and Masses; Political Elites and Mass Mobilization
George Kolankiewicz, "Elites in Search of a Political Formula," Daedalus, Vol. 123, No. 3, Summer 1994, pp. 143-57.
John Higley and Michael Burton, "The Elite Variable in Democratic Transitions and Breakdown," American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1989, pp. 17-32.
D. Share, "Transition to Democracy and Transition Through Transaction," Comparative Political Studies, Volume 19, (1987), pp. 525-548.
Baohui Zhang, "Corporatism, Totalitarianism, and Transitions to Democracy," Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, April 1994, pp. 108-136.
Michael Burton, et al. "Introduction," and "Overview," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe, pp. 1-37, 323-348.
Eva Etzioni-Halevy, "The Autonomy of Elites and Transitions From Non-Democratic Regimes: The Cases of the Soviet Union and Poland," Research in Political Sociology, Volume 6, 1992, pp. 257-276.
Week 6: Liberalization and Democratization in the East Central European Context
Liberalization Processes and Perspectives on Democratization in East Central Europe: Historical Backdrop to Contemporary Processes and Developments;
Andrew Arato, "Some Perspectives on Democratization in East Central Europe," Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 38, 1985, pp. 321-335.
Kenneth Jowitt, "The Concepts of Liberalization, Integration, and Rationalization in the Context of Eastern European Development," Studies in Comparative Communism, Vol. 4, 1971, pp. 79-92.
E. Comisso, "Market Failures and Market Socialism: Economic Problems of Transition," EEPS, Vol. 2, 1988, pp. 433-466.
A. Korbonski, "Comparing Liberalization Processes in Eastern Europe," Comparative Politics, Vol. 4, 1972, pp. 231-249.
Week 7: The Economics of Transitions in East Central Europe
Economic Aspects of the Contemporary Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe; Development and Pace of Privatization and Property Relations in the Region:
Seymour Lipset, "Some Prerequisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy," APSR, Vol. 53, 1959.
Laura D'Andrea Tyson, "The Three Challenges of Economic Transition in Eastern Europe," in George Breslauer, ed., Dilemmas of Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
Roman Frydman and Andrzej Rapaczynski, Privatization in Eastern Europe: Is the State Withering Away?: "Markets and Institutions in Large-Scale Privatization: An Approach to Economic and Social Transformation in Eastern Europe," pp. 9-45. "Privatization and Corporate Governance: Can a Market Economy Be Designed?" pp. 46-74.
Adam Przeworski, Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), passim.
Week 8: The Processes of Democratization in East Central Europe
Guiseppe Di Palma, "Why Democracy Can Work in Eastern Europe," Journal of Democracy, Vol. 2, No 1, Winter 1991, pp. 21-31.
Grzegorz Ekiert, "Democratization Processes in East Central Europe: A Theoretical Reconsideration," pp. 285-313.
Sarah Meiklejohn Terry, "Thinking About Post-Communist Transitions: How Different are They?" Slavic Review, Vol. 52, No. 2, Summer 1993, pp. 333-337.
Helga Welsh, "Political Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe," Comparative Politics, July 1994, pp. 379-394.
Dean McSweeney and Clive Tempest, "The Political Science of Democratic Transition in Eastern Europe," Political Studies, Vol. 41, 1993, pp. 408-419.
Week 9: The Processes Of Democratization In East Central Europe
Maurizio Cotta, Building Party Systems after the Dictatorship, in Pridham and Vanhanen, Democratization in Eastern Europe, pp. 99-127.
Kimmo Kuusela, The Founding Electoral Systems in Eastern Europe, 1989-91, in Pridham and Vanhanen, Democratization in Eastern Europe, pp. 128-150
Paul Lewis, et al. The Emergence of Multi-Party Systems in East-Central Europe, in Pridham and Vanhanen, Democratization in Eastern Europe, pp. 151-190.
Week 10: The Processes Of Democratization In East Central Europe
Georgina Waylen, "Women and Democratization: Conceptualizing Gender Relations in Transition Politics," in World Politics, Volume 46, April 1994 , pp. 327-54.
Valerie Bunce and Maria Csandi, "Uncertainty in the Transition: Post-Communism in Hungary," EEPS, Vol. 7, No. 2, Spring 1993, pp. 240-275.
A. Walicki, "From Stalinism to Post-Communist Pluralism," New Left Review, No. 185, 1991.
Laszlo Bruszt, "Transformative Politics: Social Costs and Social Peace in East Central Europe," EEPS, Vol. 6, No. 1, Winter 1992, pp. 55-72.
George Breslauer, ed., Dilemmas of Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, (Berkeley: University of California Press: 1991): Chapters on East Central European Countries
Week 11: Democratization and Nationalism
Joseph Rothschild, "Nationalism and Democratization in East Central Europe," Nationality Papers, Volume 22, No. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 27-34.
Victor Zaslavsky, "Nationalism and Democratic Transition in Postcommunist Societies," Daedalus Spring 1992, pp. 97-120.
Algis Prazauskas, "Ethnic Conflicts in the Context of Democratizing Political Systems, Theory and Society, Volume 20, 1991, pp. 581-602.
Renee de Nevers, "Democratization and Ethnic Conflict," in Michael Brown, ed., Ethnic Conflict and International Security, pp. 61-78.
J. Linz and A. Stepan, "Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia," Daedalus, Spring 1992, pp. 123-39.
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