MASTER'S SEMINAR
DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION IN EUROPEAN CONTEXT

Winter Term 1995
Troy McGrath
Department of European Studies
Central European University



Course Description

This seminar is designed as a one-term course in the theoretical development of the study of transitions to democracy, as pertains to both Western and Eastern Europe in the post-war era. While the course focuses upon theoretical issues and debates, specific case studies will be treated in the course readings, and hence in the lectures and class discussions. The lectures and discussions will cover various issue areas that affect democratic transitions, such as elite transformation and economic modernization. To a certain degree, the historical context of the development of democratization in post-war Europe will be included in the readings and lectures in order to acquaint students with selected issues and problems.

Each week the seminar will meet once. The discussion will incorporate and synthesize the pertinent issues and theories as they concern democratization. Attendance at class meetings is mandatory, as is completion of the assigned readings. Since it is a seminar, participation in discussion is also a requirement. In addition, each student will write an essay on one specific case of democratic transition, as well as a final paper of 20-30 pages. Essay topics for the papers must be approved by the instructor ahead of time and students will NOT be permitted to write about their own country in order to fulfill this requirement. The purpose of these assignments is for students to broaden their understanding of the contemporary issues and processes associated with transitions to democracy, and not specialize in only one national group or state.

By the end of the fourth week, students must submit proposals for their final paper. Beginning in the fifth week, each student will arrange a weekly meeting with the instructor to discuss the progress of their paper, as well as any questions they have concerning the course.

The final course grade will be an amalgamation of the specific case study of a democratic transition, class participation in discussions, and the final paper.

Attendance at lectures is mandatory, as is completion of the assigned readings. Participation in discussion is strongly urged. In addition, each student will write an essay on one specific case of democratic transition, as well as a final paper of 20-30 pages.

Essay topics for the papers must be approved by the instructor ahead of time and students will NOT be permitted to write about their own country in order to fulfill this requirement. The purpose of these assignments is for students to broaden their understanding of the contemporary issues and processes associated with transitions to democracy, and not specialize in only one national group or state.


WEEK I: ISSUES, CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS
Terminological clarification of such key terms such as: transition, democracy, democratization, legitimacy, and liberalization. Definitional issues, outline of disagreements within the debate about democratization.

Chapters by Scott Mainwaring and J.S. Valenzuela in Scott Mainwaring, et al., Issues in Democratic Consolidation.
Philippe Schmitter and Terry Lynn Karl, "What Democracy is... and is Not," Journal of Democracy, Volume 2, No. 3, Summer 1991, pp. 75-87.
Samuel Huntington, "Democracy's Third Wave," Journal of Democracy, Volume 2, No. 2, Spring 1991, pp. 12-34.

Optional Reading:
Herbert Kitschelt, "Comparative Historical Research and Rational Choice Theory: The Case of Transitions to Democracy," Theory and Society, Volume 22, No. 3, June 1993, pp. 413-29.


WEEK II
Democracy, Democratization, and Political Change; Issues of Legitimacy; Structure and Process:

Alfred Stepan, "On the Tasks of a Democratic Opposition," Journal of Democracy, Volume 1, No. 2, Spring 1990, pp. 41-49.
Chapter by Guillermo O'Donnell in Scott Mainwaring, et al., Issues in Democratic Consolidation.
Georgina Waylen, "Women and Democratization: Conceptualizing Gender Relations in Transition Politics," in World Politics, Volume 46, April 1994 , pp. 327-54.
Adam Przeworski, "Some Problems in the Study of Transition to Democracy," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritrarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives, pp. 47-63.
Zoltan Barany, "A Democratic Theory for a Democratizing World? A Re-Assessment of Popper's Political Realism," Political Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2, June 1993, pp. 252-268.

Optional Reading:
Robert Fishman, "Rethinking State and Regime: Southern Europe's Transition to Democracy," in World Politics, Volume 42, No. 3, April 1990.
Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966).
Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971).


WEEK III: DEMOCRATIC TRANSITIONS IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
Typologies of Transition: Negotiation and the Retreat from Power:
Models of Regime Transition; Dilemmas of Democratization; How Countries Democratize:

Enrique Baloyra, "Democratic Transition in Comparative Perspectives," Comparing New Democracies, Transition and Consolidation in Mediterranean Europe and the Southern Cone,
(Boulder: Westview Press, 1987), pp. 9-52.
Geoffrey Pridham, "Comparative Perspectives on the New Mediterranean Democracies: A Model of Regime Transition?" in The New Mediterranean Democracies: Regime Transition in Spain, Greece and Portugal, pp. 1-29.
Gerardo Munck, "Democratic Transitions in Comparative Perspective," [Review Article], Comparative Politics, April 1994, pp. 355-375.
Terry Lynn Karl, "Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America," Comparative Politics, Vol. 23, 1990, pp. 1-21.
Samuel Huntington, "How Countries Democratize," Political Science Quarterly, Volume 106, 1992, pp. 579-616.

CASE STUDY: SPAIN
Jose Maria Maravall and Julian Santamaria, "Political Change in Spain and the Prospects for Democracy," in O'Donnell, et al, Transitions From Authoritrarian Rule: Southern Europe, pp. 71-108.
Richard Gunther, "Spain: The Very Model of Modern Elite Settlement," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe, pp. 38-80.
P. McDonough and S. Barnes, and A. Pina, "The Growth of Democratic Legitimacy in Spain," APSR, Volume 80, No. 3, September 1986.

Optional Reading:
Giuseppe Di Palma, To Craft Democracies: An Essay on Democratic Transitions, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990).
Dankwart Rustow, "Transition to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model," Comparative Politics, Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 337-363.
Samuel Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991).


WEEK IV
Elite Unification, Elite Bargaining, and Elite Transformation; Transition Through Extrication; Linkages Between Elites and Masses; Political Elites and Mass Mobilization

John Higley and Michael Burton, "The Elite Variable in Democratic Transitions and Breakdown," American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1989, pp. 17-32.
D. Share, "Transition to Democracy and Transition Through Transaction," Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 19, 1987, pp. 525-548.
Baohui Zhang, "Corporatism, Totalitarianism, and Transitions to Democracy," Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, April 1994, pp. 108-136.
Michael Burton, et al. "Introduction," and "Overview," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe, pp. 1-37, 323-348.

CASE STUDY: ITALY
Gianfranco Pasquino, "The Demise of the First Fascist Regime and Italy's Transition to Democracy: 1943-1948," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritrarian Rule: Southern Europe, pp. 45-70.
Maurizio Cotta, "Elite Unification and Democratic Consolidation in Italy: A Historical Overview," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe, pp. 146-177.

Optional Reading:
G. Therborn, "The Rule of Capital and the Rise of Democracy," New Left Review, No. 103, 1977, pp. 3-41.

WEEK V: DEMOCRATIC CONSOLIDATION AND RE-DEMOCRATIZATION
Impact of Prior Regime Type; Transition Through Regime Defeat;
Redemocratisation and Transition; Elections;

Alfred Stepan, "Paths toward Redemocratization: Theoretical and Comparative Considerations," in O'Donnell, et al, Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives, pp. 64-84.
Philippe Schmitter, "An Introduction to Southern European Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Turkey," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Southern Europe, pp. 3-10.
Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan, "Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, The Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia," Daedelus, Volume 121, 1992, pp. 123-139.
Nancy Bermeo, "Redemocratization and Transition Elections: A Comparison of Spain and Portugal," in Comparative Politics, Volume 19, 1987, pp. 213-31.
Diane Ethier, "Process of Transition and Democratic Consolidation," in Democratic Transition and Consolidation in Southern Europe, Latin America, and Southeast Asia, (London: MacMillan, 1990), pp. 3-21.

CASE STUDIES: PORTUGAL AND GREECE
Kenneth Maxwell, "Regime Overthrow and the Prospects for Democratic Transition in Portugal," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Southern Europe, pp. 109-137.
Lawrence Graham, "Redefining the Portuguese Transition to Democracy," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe, pp. 282-299.
P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, "Regime Change and the Prospects for Democracy in Greece: 1974-1983," in O'Donnell, et al, Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Southern Europe, pp. 138-164.

Optional reading:
Geoffrey Pridham, The New Mediterranean Democracies: Regime Transition in Spain, Greece and Portugal, (London: Frank Cass, 1984), passim.


WEEK VI: LIBERALIZATION AND DEMOCRATIZATION
IN THE EAST CENTRAL EUROPEAN CONTEXT

Liberalization Processes and Perspectives on Democratization in East Central Europe: Historical Backdrop to Contemporary Processes and Developments;

Andrew Arato, "Some Perspectives on Democratization in East Central Europe," Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 38, 1985, pp. 321-335.
A. Korbonski, "Comparing Liberalization Processes in Eastern Europe: A Preliminary Analysis," Comparative Politics, Vol. 4, 1972, pp. 231-249.
Kenneth Jowitt, "The Concepts of Liberalization, Integration, and Rationalization in the Context of Eastern European Development," Studies in Comparative Communism, Vol. 4, 1971, pp. 79-92.
Guiseppe Di Palma, "Why Democracy Can Work in Eastern Europe," Journal of Democracy, Volume 2, No 1, Winter 1991, pp. 21-31.
E. Comisso, "Market Failures and Market Socialism: Economic Problems of Transition," EEPS, Vol. 2, 1988, pp. 433-466.

Optional Reading:
Stephen White, et al., Communist and Post-Communist Political Systems: An Introduction, (London: MacMillan, 1990).


WEEK VII: DEMOCRATIZATION AND EAST CENTRAL EUROPE
Modes of Transition; application of models from Latin America to East Europe: Sequence of Choices Faced in Transition; Transition Through Transaction:

Chapter by Adam Przeworski in Scott Mainwaring, et al., Issues in Democratic Consolidation. Terry Lynn Karl and Philippe Schmitter, "Modes of Transition in Latin America, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe," in International Social Science Journal, Volume 128, 1991, pp. 269-284.
L. Whitehead, "International Aspects of Democratization," in Guillermo O'Donnell, et al. Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Prospects For Democracy, pp. 3-47.
Grzegorz Ekiert, "Democratization Processes in East Central Europe: A Theoretical Reconsideration," pp. 285-313.
Sarah Meiklejohn Terry, "Thinking About Post-Communist Transitions: How Different are They?" Slavic Review, Vol. 52, No. 2, Summer 1993, pp. 333-337.

Optional Reading:
Dean McSweeney and Clive Tempest, "The Political Science of Democratic Transition in Eastern Europe," Political Studies, Vol. 41, 1993, pp. 408-419.


WEEK VIII: DEMOCRATIC TRANSITIONS IN EAST CENTRAL EUROPE
Political Aspects of the Contemporary Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe; Development and Pace of Democratization in Region:

Judy Batt, East Central Europe from Reform to Transformation, (London: Pinter, 1991); Econ. Reform in the Crisis of Communist Rule, pp. 3-21.
The End of Communist Rule, pp. 22-42.
The Emergence of Pluralist Politics, pp. 43-71.
The Politics of Economic Transformation, pp. 72-102.
Helga Welsh, "Political Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe," Comparative Politics, July 1994, pp. 379-394.
Sten Berglund and Jan Ake Dellenbrant, eds., The New Democracies in Eastern Europe, (Cambridge: Edward Elgar, 1991):
"The Breakdown of Authoritarianism in Eastern Europe,
"The Failure of Popular Democracy," pp. 1-39

CASE STUDIES: EAST CENTRAL EUROPE
Sten Berglund and Jan Ake Dellenbrant, eds., The New Democracies in Eastern Europe: Party Systems and Political Cleavages: Chapters on Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, the Baltic States, Bulgaria, and the GDR.
George Breslauer, ed., Dilemmas of Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, (Berkeley: University of California Press: 1991): Chapters on various East Central European Countries


WEEK IX: THE ECONOMICS OF TRANSITIONS IN EAST CENTRAL EUROPE
Economic Aspects of the Contemporary Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe; Development and Pace of Privatization and Property Relations in the Region:

Seymour Lipset, "Some Prerequisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy," APSR, Vol. 53, 1959.
Laura D'Andrea Tyson, "The Three Challenges of Economic Transition in Eastern Europe," in George Breslauer, ed., Dilemmas of Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
Roman Frydman and Andrzej Rapaczynski, Privatization in Eastern Europe: Is the State Withering Away?: "Markets and Institutions in Large-Scale Privatization:
An Approach to Economic and Social Transformation in Eastern Europe," pp. 9-45.
"Privatization and Corporate Governance: Can a Market
Economy Be Designed?" pp. 46-74.
Adam Przeworski, Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), passim.

CASE STUDIES-- PRIVATIZATION IN THE REGION:
Roman Frydman, Andrzej Rapaczynski, John Earle, et al., The Privatization Process in Russia, Ukraine, and the Baltics, and The Privatization Process in Central Europe, both volumes (Budapest, CEU Press, 1993): Case Studies of the Baltics, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine.


WEEK X: SOCIAL ASPECTS OF TRANSITIONS IN EAST CENTRAL EUROPE
Socio-political Aspects of the Contemporary Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe; Development and Pace of Social Institutions: Rule of Law; Rise of Nationalism:

Algis Prazauskas, "Ethnic Conflicts in the Context of Democratizing Political Systems: Theses," Theory and Society, Vol. 20, No. 5, October 1991, pp. 581-602.
Laszlo Bruszt, "Transformative Politics: Social Costs and Social Peace in East Central Europe," EEPS, Vol. 6, No. 1, Winter 1992, pp. 55-72.
Eva Etzioni-Halevy, "The Autonomy of Elites and Transitions From Non-Democratic Regimes: The Cases of the Soviet Union and Poland," Research in Political Sociology, Volume 6, 1992, pp. 257-276.
A. Walicki, "From Stalinism to Post-Communist Pluralism," New Left Review, No. 185, 1991.

Optional Reading:
Arend Lijphart, "Democratization and Constitutional Choices in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland, 1989-1991," Journal of Theoretical Politics, Volume 4, 1992, pp. 207-223.
Valerie Bunce and Maria Csandi, "Uncertainty in the Transition: Post-Communism in Hungary," EEPS, Vol. 7, No. 2, Spring 1993, pp. 240-275.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Andrew Arato, "Some Perspectives on Democratization in East Central Europe," Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 38, 1985.
Enrique Baloyra, Comparing New Democracies, Transition and Consolidation in Mediterranean Europe and the Southern Cone, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1987).
Zoltan Barany, "A Democratic Theory for a Democratizing World? A Re-Assessment of Popper's Political Realism," Political Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2, June 1993.
Judy Batt, East Central Europe from Reform to Transformation, (London: Pinter, 1991).
Sten Berglund and Jan Ake Dellenbrant, eds., The New Democracies in Eastern Europe: Party Systems and Political Cleavages, (Cambridge: Edward Elgar, 1991).
Nancy Bermeo, "Redemocratization and Transition Elections: A Comparison of Spain and Portugal," in Comparative Politics, Volume 19, 1987.
George Breslauer, ed., Dilemmas of Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991).
Laszlo Bruszt, "Transformative Politics: Social Costs and Social Peace in East Central Europe," EEPS, Vol. 6, No. 1, Winter 1992.
Valerie Bunce and Maria Csandi, "Uncertainty in the Transition: Post-Communism in Hungary," EEPS, Vol. 7, No. 2, Spring 1993.
E. Comisso, "Market Failures and Market Socialism: Economic Problems of Transition," EEPS, Vol. 2, 1988.
Maurizio Cotta, "Elite Unification and Democratic Consolidation in Italy: A Historical Overview," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe.
Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971). P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, "Regime Change and the Prospects for Democracy in Greece: 1974-1983," in O'Donnell, et al,Transitions From Authoritarian Rule.
Larry Diamond, Juan Linz, Seymour Lipset, eds., Democracy in Developing Countries: Comparing Experiences With Democracy, (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1990).
Guiseppe Di Palma, To Craft Democracies: An Essay on Democratic Transitions, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990).
Guiseppe Di Palma, "Why Democracy Can Work in Eastern Europe," Journal of Democracy, Volume 2, No 1, Winter 1991.
Grzegorz Ekiert, "Democratization Processes in East Central Europe: A Theoretical Reconsideration," pp. 285-313.
Eva Etzioni-Halevy, "The Autonomy of Elites and Transitions From Non-Democratic Regimes: The Cases of the Soviet Union and Poland," Research in Political Sociology, Volume 6, 1992, pp. 257-276.
Diane Ethier, Democratic Transition and Consolidation in Southern Europe, Latin America, and Southeast Asia, (London: MacMillan, 1990).
Robert Fishman, "Rethinking State and Regime: Southern Europe's Transition to Democracy," in World Politics, Volume 42, No. 3, April 1990.
Roman Frydman, Andrzej Rapaczynski, John Earle, et al., The Privatization Process in Central Europe, (Budapest: CEU Press, 1993).
Roman Frydman and Andrzej Rapaczynski, Privatization in Eastern Europe: Is the State Withering Away?, (Budapest: CEU Press, 1994).
Roman Frydman, Andrzej Rapaczynski, John Earle, et al., The Privatization Process in Russia, Ukraine, and the Baltics, (Budapest: CEU Press, 1993).
Lawrence Graham, "Redefining the Portuguese Transition to Democracy," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe.
Richard Gunther, "Spain: The Very Model of Modern Elite Settlement," in Higley and Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe.
John Higley and Richard Gunther, eds., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
John Higley and Michael Burton, "The Elite Variable in Democratic Transitions and Breakdown," American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1989.
Samuel Huntington, "Democracy's Third Wave," Journal of Democracy, Volume 2, No. 2, Spring 1991, pp. 12-34.
Samuel Huntington, "How Countries Democratize," Political Science Quarterly, Volume 106, 1992.
Samuel Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991).
Kenneth Jowitt, "The Concepts of Liberalization, Integration, and Rationalization in the Context of Eastern European Development," Studies in Comparative Communism, Vol. 4, 1971.
Terry Lynn Karl, "Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America," Comparative Politics, Vol. 23, 1990.
Terry Lynn Karl and Philippe Schmitter, "Modes of Transition in Latin America, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe," International Social Science Journal, Volume 128, 1991, pp. 269-284.
Herbert Kitschelt, "Comparative Historical Research and Rational Choice Theory: The Case of Transitions to Democracy," Theory and Society, Volume 22, No. 3, June 1993.
A. Korbonski, "Comparing Liberalization Processes in Eastern Europe: A Preliminary Analysis," Comparative Politics, Vol. 4, 1972.
Arend Lijphart, "Democratization and Constitutional Choices in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland, 1989-1991," Journal of Theoretical Politics, Volume 4, 1992.
Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan, "Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, The Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia," Daedelus, Volume 121, 1992.
Seymour Lipset, "Some Prerequisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy," APSR, Vol. 53, 1959.
Scott Mainwaring, Guillermo O'Donnell, J.S. Valenzuela, eds., Issues in Democratic Consolidation: The New South American Democracies in Comparative Perspective, (South Bend: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992).
Jose Maria Maravall and Julian Santamaria, "Political Change in Spain and the Prospects for Democracy," in O'Donnell, et al, Transitions From Authoritarian Rule.
Kenneth Maxwell, "Regime Overthrow and the Prospects for Democratic Transition in Portugal," in O'Donnell, et al, Transitions From Authoritarian Rule.
P. McDonough and S. Barnes, and A. Pina, "The Growth of Democratic Legitimacy in Spain," APSR, Volume 80, No. 3, September 1986.
Dean McSweeney and Clive Tempest, "The Political Science of Democratic Transition in Eastern Europe," Political Studies, Vol. 41, 1993.
Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966).
Gerardo Munck, "Democratic Transitions in Comparative Perspective," [Review Article], Comparative Politics, April 1994.
Guillermo O'Donnell, Phillipe Schmitter, and L. Whitehead, eds., Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988).
Guillermo O'Donnell, Phillipe Schmitter, and L. Whitehead, eds., Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Prospects For Democracy, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986).
Gianfranco Pasquino, "The Demise of the First Fascist Regime and Italy's Transition to Democracy: 1943-1948," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Southern Europe.
Algis Prazauskas, "Ethnic Conflicts in the Context of Democratizing Political Systems: Theses," Theory and Society, Vol. 20, No. 5, October 1991.
Geoffrey Pridham, The New Mediterranean Democracies: Regime Transition in Spain, Greece and Portugal, (London: Frank Cass, 1984).
Adam Przeworski, Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
Adam Przeworski, "Some Problems in the Study of Transition to Democracy," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritarian Rule.
Dankwart Rustow, "Transition to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model," Comparative Politics, Vol. 2, 1970.
Philippe Schmitter, "An Introduction to Southern European Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Turkey," in O'Donnell, et al., Transitions From Authoritarian Rule.
Philippe Schmitter and Terry Lynn Karl, "What Democracy is...and is Not," Journal of Democracy, Volume 2, No. 3, Summer 1991.
Alfred Stepan, "On the Tasks of a Democratic Opposition," Journal of Democracy, Volume 1, No. 2, Spring 1990.
Alfred Stepan, "Paths toward Redemocratization: Theoretical and Comparative Considerations," in O'Donnell, et al, Transitions From Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives.
Sarah Meiklejohn Terry, "Thinking About Post-Communist Transitions: How Different are They?" Slavic Review, Vol. 52, No. 2, Summer 1993.
Laura D'Andrea Tyson, "The Three Challenges of Economic Transition in Eastern Europe," in George Breslauer, ed., Dilemmas of Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
A. Walicki, "From Stalinism to Post-Communist Pluralism," New Left Review, No. 185, 1991.
Georgina Waylen, "Women and Democratization: Conceptualizing Gender Relations in Transition Politics," in World Politics, Volume 46, April 1994.
Helga Welsh, "Political Transition Processes in Central and Eastern Europe," Comparative Politics, July 1994.
Baohui Zhang, "Corporatism, Totalitarianism, and Transitions to Democracy," Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, April 1994.




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