Fall Term 1994
Claire Wallace
Institute of Advanced Studies, Vienna
for the Department of International Relations

Course Description

The seminar will first provide an overview over migration in Europe with a major focus on East-West migration after 1989. Students are expected to read short basic texts which will be discussed in the course. The main task for students is, however, to do their own research on migration . This involves alternatively: biographical interviews with migrants; ethnographic observation; expert interviews with civil servants or representatives of relevant organizations and associations; group discussions; secondary analysis of statistical data.

The seminar is organized in two blocks with a period for field work in between. Seminars will take the form of a short presentation of the issues followed by a discussion focused around key texts. the key texts will be handed out in the form of a reader at the beginning of the course.


Students will be required to submit an outline of their proposed research. They will be expected to make a presentation of their results during the second block. Final papers based upon these two presentation form the essay for the course. . < ,

Selected Texts:
Articles or extracts from:

Ardittis, S. (ed.) (1994) The Politics of East-West Migration St. Martin s Press
Barry, B. and Goodin, R.E. (1992) Free Movement. Harvester, Wheatsheaf
Bauböck, R. (1994) Transnational Citizenship. Edward Elgar
Bauböck, R. (ed.) (1994) From Aliens to Citizens. Edward Elgar
Castles, Stephen (1995) Contract Labor Migration, in: Robin Cohen (ed.) The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Castles, Stephen (1995) How nation states respond to immigration and ethnic diversity, New Community 3/95. -~
Castles. Stephen and Mark J. Miller (1994) The Age of Migration, Macmillan, London.
Chesnais, J. (ed.) (1992) People on the Move. New migration flows in Europe. Council of Europe, Strasbourg
Coenen, H. and Leisink, P. (1993) Work and Citizenship in the New Europe. Edward Elgar
Cohen, R. (1987) The New Helots, Avebury
Cohen, Robin (1995) (ed.) The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Cross, M. and Keith, M. (eds.) (1993) Racism, the City and the State, Routledge
Evers, H-D and Schrader, H. (1994) The Moral Economy of Trade, Routledge
Fassmann, Heinz and Rainer Münz (1995) East-West Migration in Europe, in: Robin Cohen (ed.) The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Faßmann, Heinz und Rainer Münz (1995) Einwanderungsland Osterreich. Verlag Jugend und Volk, Wien.
Faßmann, Heinz und Rainer Münz (ed.) (1994) European Migration in the Late Twentieth Century, Edward Elgar, Aldershot, UK.
Fullerton, M., Sik, E. and Toth, J. (1995) Refugees and Migrants: Hungary at the Crossroads, Budapest, Hungarian Academy of Sciences
King, R. (1993) Mass Migration in Europe Belhaven Press, London
Layard, R. et. al. (1992) East-West Migration. Alternatives. MIT Press
Layton-Henry, Z.(1992) The Politics of Immigration, Blackwells, Oxford
Miller, Mark J (1995) Illegal Migration, in: Robin Cohen (ed.) The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Portes, A. (1995) (ed.) The Economic Sociology of Immigration Russell Sage Foundation, New York
Sassen, S. (1988) Mobility of Labour and Capital Cambridge University Press
Siebert, H. (ed.) Migration: a challenge for Europe, University of Kiel
Spencer, S. (1994) Strangers and Citizens Rivers Oram Press
Suda, Z (1994) The Globalization of Labour Markets, PDA Press
Wallace, Claire, O. Chmouliar, E. Sidorenko (1995)Die östliche Grenze Westeuropas. Mobilität in der Pufferzone SWS Rundschau Heft1/1995
Weiner. Myron (1995) The Global Migration Crisis, Harper Collins, New York.
Zolberg Aristide, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo (1989), Escape from Violence. Conflict and the Refugee Crises in the Developing World, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Outline of the programme:

1. An Overview of Migration issues with particular reference to Europe
Patterns of migration
Historical trends
Contemporary trends
Europe and the world

First chapters from Castles and Miller (1993)

2. Explaining migration:
Geographical distance, population equilibrium, push-pull models
Economic models: neoclassical economy, new economics of labor, human and social capital, world system approaches
Political and cultural causes and constraints: sending and receiving state perspectives; forced and voluntary migration

Massey, Douglas et al. (1993)

3. Explaining integration and exclusion:
Assimilation, segregation, integration in the receiving economy, polity, culture
Types of nation-building in receiving and sending states
Transnational networks and ties to countries of origin
Ethnicization of immigrant minorities in receiving societies, multiculturalism

Stephen Castles: New Community 3/95; M. Walzer in Harvard Encyclopedia.

4. Migration in Europe: geographical zones and types of migration
National immigration histories and current data:
Eastern Central Europe (Buffer Zone): Poland, Czechia, Slovakia, CW Hungary
Eastern Europe: Rumania, Bulgaria, CIS

5. Types of migration:
Forced migration:
slavery and indentured labor;
refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons;
population transfers; victims of war and civil war;
ecological refugees
Ethnic minorities and coethnic immigrants: homeland policies; external minority protection and privileged immigration
Labor migration: commuter migration, seasonal migration, fixed period immigration, probationary immigration, fixed target immigration, intended return immigration and intended settlement migration
Chain migration: family reunification; transmigrants and transnational household economies; ethnic and national networks
Transient migration:
Transit migrants foreign students; traders, privileged transients: business managers, professionals, diplomats, etc.

7. Migration policies
Emigration: root causes and impacts of sending and receiving states' policies
Admission policies: immigration control instruments: entry to territory: visa, border control immigration admission: laborers, owners of special skills and investment capital, refugees, family reunification, coethnic immigrants;
Free movement: geographic zones of free movement (Schengen) collective free movement - reciprocal arrangements (EU, Scandinavia) or privileged admission (coethnics) individual free movement (dual citizenship)
Irregular immigration: illegal border crossing, visa overstayers, undocumented employment apprehension at the border, individual controls and raids in the country employer sanctions individual regularization and collective amnesties
Regulation of residence and employment: residence permits access to employment, free movement
Denizenship: access to citizenship rights for foreign residents
Admission to citizenship: naturalization and expatriation acquisition by birth dual citizenship
Social and cultural integration policies: anti-discrimination policies cultural recognition for immigrant minorities

Methods and data in migration research
Tasks for research papers:
Individual biographical interviews: reconstruct migration itineraries and decisions, attitudes towards countries of origin and integration
Ethnographical research: observation in specific settings (refugee camp, street market, shops, workplace, etc.) analysis of media, letters, diaries
Group discussions: specific issues such as migration decisions (return, reunification, settlement, naturalization), discussion of policies,...
Expert interviews: civil servants, NGOs, etc.
Secondary data analysis: census, microcensus, official statistics:

Research Questions:
Below are some potential research questions to orient the studies:
a. What are the motives for migration? How are these developed in terms of a migration itinerary?
b. What is the relationship between migration and the sending community/ household/family?
c. How does the migrant integrate into the host community? Who do they associate with and why? What are their experiences of xenophobia?
d. Would they apply for naturalization and why? What are the obstacles?
e. What are the patterns of residence and work for different migrant groups?

CRC-Curriculum Resource Center
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Modified: August, 1996


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