THE MAKING OF MODERN EUROPE
Fall Term 1994
Istvan Gyorgy Toth
Laszlo Kontler
Jonathan Osmond
Edna Lemay
Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales
for the Department of History
CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY



Course Description

A selective treatment of some of the main topics of Europe's modernization process in the l9th century. Problems of the historiography of the French Revolution. The limits of terror and secularization. The codification of European norms under Napoleon; the causes of the fall of Napoleon. Lasting achievements of the French Revolution. The impact of the industrial revolution. The dominant ideas of the age: liberalism and nationalism; the main artistic trends: classicism and romanticism. The varieties of the state machinery in 19th century Europe; the interactions of social change, the "isms" and the state in England, France, Germany, Italy and Spain. The rise of mass society and social movements in the second half of the 19th century. Europe's 19th century expansion.


Topics -- Part I: Enlightenment to 1848

The Enlightenment
The philosophies and the popular culture. Society of the ancient regime in Europe: variations from the Themes to the Neva. Universities and diminishing illiteracy. The long way of enlightened ideas from the Parisian salons to the bourgeois homes. East Central Europe in the mind-eighteenth century. The structure of society. The burghers, nobility and the peasants. Illiterate masses and French-speaking elites: the national variations. The role of the Church. Educational reforms. Books and readers: the long way of the enlightened ideas from Paris to the Hungarian market-towns.

Literature:
Olwen Hufton: Europe: Privilege and protest 1730-1789. Fontana History of Europe.
Domokos Kosary: Culture and society in the eighteenth-century . Hungary. Budapest 1987.
European Society in the Eighteenth Century. Ed. Robert and Elborg Forster. Harper and Row. 1969. London.
Norman Hampson, The Enlightenment. Penguin. 1968.
The Enlightenment. 1687-1776. A History of Modern Culture. Preserved Smith. Collier books. 1962.NY.
William Doyle: The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford University Press. 1986.
Georges Lefebvre: the Coming of the French Revolution. Translated? R.R.Palmer. Princeton University Press.1967.

The French Revolution
The crisis of the ancient regime. The Estates-General: why the king convoked it, its members and parties. The first phase of the revolution: constitutional monarchy. Europe and the revolution. The republic and the terror. The system of thermidor. The legacy of the French Revolution. The news about the events in Paris arrive in East-Central Europe. How the peasants reacted to it, how the noblemen misunderstood its significance. The reaction of the Habsburg monarchy. Jacobin clubs and jacobin trials. The Napoleonic wars and their effects on the region.

Literature:
The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford University Press 1990.
Francois Furet/Denis Richet: The French Revolution. (in French too).
McCartney: Habsburg Empire.

Italy, Germany
Similarities between the fate of the Italian and German nations. Why the program of the national unification could not be achieved until the second half of the nineteenth century? Germany: Empire and small states, regional differences. Italy: various regions, great differences in the development. Movements for the realization of the national program.

Literature:
Holborn: History of Modern Germany.
Carpanetto-Ricuperati: Italy in the age of reason. Longman History of Italy.
Harry Hearder: Italy in the Age of Risorgimento. Ibidem.

The Europe of the Empires
The end of the French Revolution. The rise of general Bonaparte. From the republic to the empire. The foreign policy of Napoleon. The system of Napoleon in the French Empire. The campaigns of Napoleon, struggle, alliance and war with the Russian and Austrian emperors. The transformations of the Holy Empire. The Vienna congress: shaping a new Europe.

Literature:
George Rude: Revolutionary Europe 1783-1815. Fontana History of Europe

Liberalism
European society in change and the emergence of "isms" in the early 19th century: the beginning of the age of ideology. - Liberalism: social and political roots and founding fathers from Locke to Smith. - Liberal slogans and aims in theory and practice: equality of opportunity; civic liberties; "negative" freedom; representative and responsible government; the "nightwatchman state". - Varieties of the liberal theory: England, France, Germany. Liberalism as a social attitude, as an ideology and as a political program.

Literature:
Palmer - relevant parts
Hobsbawm: The Age of Revolution, ch. 6. and 10. (pp. 138-163, 224- 244.)
John A. Hall: Liberalism, pt. I. (pp. 9-62.)
E.K. Bramsted-K.J. Melhuish (ed.):Western Liberalism. A History in Documents-relevant parts

England and France 1815-1848
Political reaction following the end of the Napoleonic wars: restoration France and England until the mid-1820s. - Economic and demographic progress as a lever of change. - Reform and revolution: two ways to the "triumph of the bourgeoisie" in Western Europe. -The Revolution of 1830 and the July Monarchy in France. - The Reform Bill of 1832 and the repeal of the Corn Laws in Britain. -Working class movement in the "golden age of capitalism". - France and Britain in the European state system.

Literature:
Palmer - relevant parts
Alfred Cobban: History of Modern France, vol. II. pt. II. (pp. 71-131.)
David Thomson: England in the Nineteenth Century (The Pelican History of England, vol. 8.), pt. I. (pp. 11-98.)
Asa Briggs: The Age of Improvement 1783-1867, pp. 184-367.

Topics -- Part II.: 1848 to the late 19th century

Bonapartism in France 1848-1870
The growth and nature of Prussian power c. 1849-1880
Economic and political conditions in Spain and Italy in the later nineteenth century
British politics and economy in the mid-Victorian era
Colonialism and imperialism of the powers in the later nineteenth century
Changing societies and the beginnings of socialism

Literature: Students should select at least one general history and at least one work of broad coverage within each section. Other material can then be consulted as desired.

General
Gollwitzer, Heinz, Europe in the Age of Imperialism 1880-1914 (1969)
Grenville, J.A.S., Europe Reshaped 1848-1878 (1976)
Hobsbawm, E.J., The Age of Capital 1848-1875 (1975)
Hobsbawm, E.J., The Age of Empire 1875-1914 (1987)
Mosse, W.E., Liberal Europe: The Age of Bourgeois Realism 1848-1875 (1974
Stearns, Peter N., The Revolutions of 1848
Taylor, A.J.P., The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848-1918 (1954)

Spain and Italy
Bosworth, Richard, Italy and the Approach of the First World War (1983)
Brenan, Gerald, The Spanish Labyrinth: An Account of the Social and Political Background of the Civil War (1943)
Carr, Raxmond, Modern Spain 1875-1980 (1980)
Carr, Raymond, Spain 1808-1975 (1982)
Davies, John A. (ed.), Gramsci and Italy's Passive Revolution (1979)
Harrison, Joseph, An Economic History of Modern Spain n (1978)
Miller, James Edward, From Elite to Mass Politics: Italian Socialism in the Giolittian Era, 1900-1914 (1990)
Sanchez-Albornoz, Nicholas (ed.), The Economic Modernization of Spain, 1830-1930
(1987)
Schapiro, Jacob Salwyn, Anticlericalism: Conflict between Church and State in France, Italy and Spain (1967)
Shubert, Adrian, A Social History of Modern Spain (1990)
Vaccaro, R., "Industrialisation in Spain and Italy (1860-1914)", in Journal of European Economic History 9 (1980), pp. 709-51

Britain
Feuchtwanger, E.J., Democracy and Ampire: Britain 1865-1914 (1965)
Gash, Norman, Aristocracy and People: Britain 1815-1865
Gourvish, T.R. & O'Day, Alan (eds.), Later Victorian Britain 1867-1900 (1988)
Harris, Jose, Private Lives, Public Spirit: A Social History of Britain 1870-1914 (1993)
Hobsbawm, E.J., Industry and Empire (1968)
Mathias, Peter, The First Industrial Nation: An Economic History of Britain 1700-1914 (1969)
Seaman, L.C.B., Victorian England: Aspects of English and Imperial History 1837-l901 (1973)

France
Agulhon, Maurice, The Republican Experiment 1848-1852
Kemp, Tom, Economic Forces in French History
McMillan, James F., Napoleon III (1991)
McPhee, Peter, A Social History of France 1780-1880 (1992)
Magraw, Roger, France 1815-1914: The Bourgeois Century (1983)
Price, Roger, An Economic History of Modern France 1730-1914
Price, Roger, A Social History of Modern France
Zeldin, Theodore, France 1848-1945 (2 vols.)

Germany
Blackbourn, David & Eley, Geoff, The Peculiarities of German History: Bourgeois Society and Polities in Nineteenth-Century Germany (1984)
Breuilly, John (ed.), The State of Germany: The national idea in the making, unmaking and remaking of a modern nation state (1992)
Carr, William, A History of Germany 1815-1990
Craig, Gordon A., Germany 1866-1945
Gall, Lothar, Bismarck: the White Revolutionary (2 vols., 1986)
Kitchen, Martin, The Political Economy of Germany 1815-1914.
Lee, W.R. (ed.), German Industry and German Industrialization: Essays in German Economic and Business History in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (1991)
Sheehan, James J., German Liberalism in the Nineteenth Century (1978)

Colonialism and Imperialism
Cain, P.J. & Hopkins, A.G., British Imperialism: Innovation and Expansion 1688-1914 (1993)
Chamberlain, Muriel, The Scramble for Africa (1974)
Kennedy, Paul, The Realities Behind Diplomacy: Background Influences on British External Policy 1865-1980 (1981)
Shannon, Richard, The Crisis of Imperialism 1865-1915 (1974)

Changing Societies, the Beginnings of Socialism
Esenwein, George R., Anarchist Ideology and the Working-Class Movement in Spain, 1868-1898 (1989)
Geary, Dick, European Labor Protest 1848-1939
Geary, Dick (ed.), Labor and Socialist Movements in Europe before 1914 (1989)
Gibson, Ralph & Blinkhorn, Martin (eds.), Land ownership and Power in Modern Europe (1991)
Kemp, Tom,, Industrialization in Nineteenth-Century Europe
Kocka, Jurgen, & Mitchell, Allan (eds.), Bourgeois Society in l9th Century Europe
Lichtheim, George, A Short History of Socialism (1970)
Magraw, Roger, A History of the French Working Class (2 vols.,1992)
Moses, John A., Trade Unionism in Germany from Bismarck to Hitler 1869-19 (2 vols.)
Noiriel, Gerard, Workers in French Society in the 19th and 20th Centuries (1990)
Pelling, Henry, A History of British Trade Unionism (3rd ed., 1976)
Perrot, Michelle, Workers on Strike: France 1871-1890 (1967)
Pollard, Sidney, Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe 1760-1970
Trebilcock, Clive, The Industrialisation of the Continental Powers 1780-1914 (1981)


Suggested Essay/Seminar Paper Titles/Questions

1. To what extent was Bonapartist rule in France 1851-1870 based on force? How far did Bonapartist rule in France 1851 - 1870 serve the interests of the bourgeoisie?

2. Was Prussian power in Germany c. 1849-1880 based primarily on military or economic strength? What democratic element was there in Bismarck's governance of Germany after 1871?

3. Compare the political role of the army in Spain and Italy c. 1849-1875. Compare the functioning of parliamentary polities in Spain and Italy from the 1870s.

4. How far did the British parliamentary system reflect the social structure after 1848? Assess the progress of the British economy in the later nineteenth century.

5. Was European imperialism primarily for domestic political purposes? Was imperial competition primarily for economic benefit?

6. "The changes in western and central European societies by the last quarter of the nineteenth century have been much exaggerated." Discuss. "Nineteenth-century socialism was democratic rather than revolutionary in purpose." Discuss.



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Modified: May, 1996

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