EDUCATION AND LEARNING IN CENTRAL EUROPE
Winter Term 1996
Victor Karady
Department of History
CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY





Course Description

1. The social uses of education and organized learning in all societies educational provision is one of the basic social agencies of social control and moral socialization (together with the family local organizations the Churches etc.)
-the problem of cultural legitimacy that is the social hierarchy of cognitive competencies conveyed by formal education
-the problem of cultural capital as a major asset (together with economic and other social capitals) in socio-professional mobility towards and self-assertion in the contemporary elites
- general functions of the educational provision include in modern times
- social class reproduction via the training of various social groups according to their rank or position in various professional, economic or status hierarchies (elite and rank and file learning)
- legitimatization of social order and established social hierarchies: an adequate level of learning provides social justification to social positions, especially in the elite
-instrument of upward social mobility (towards the elite): "cultural capital" as asset of maintenance or improving of class positions
- vehicle of integration or segregation of various social groups (ex. old and new elites, ethnic and religious minorities, etc.)
- vehicle of cultural assimilation and unification (especially of various social classes, regional populations of modern nation states)
- training of service elites and professional groups (with special intellectual competences )
- training of consumers of culture, especially of "high culture", inculcation of criteria of taste esthetic and intellectual judgment
- inculcation of consensual value systems moral socialization of youth (religious, national etc.)
production and reproduction of knowledge (research and scholarship in the sciences and the humanities

2. The historical emergence of modern educational provision and agencies of learning in Central Europe
- The Latin and Greek tradition and the Christian reorganization of learning in the Middle Ages: contribution of non Christian traditions, Talmudic Judaism and the Islam, birth of universities and cloister schools, the social status of medieval literati
- the humanistic tradition in Central Europe, role of the universities in Prague, Cracow and Vienna, student migrations to Western universities during the Renaissance and the Westernisation of learning
- the birth of the modern college system: the contribution of Protestants, Jesuits and other teaching congregations under the aegis of the Counter Reformation
- the expulsion of the Jesuits ( 1773) and the first steps to establish in the region secular teaching provisions organized and controlled by the State: educational policies of the absolutist Habsburg Monarchy in the 18th and the early 19th century, the language problem (Latin, German and/or national idioms)
- the cultural objectivations of nationalism: birth of national theaters, museums, library networks and learned societies in Hungary, Poland, the Czech lands and Rumania-the 1848 Revolution and its aftermath: reorganization and nationalization of the secondary and higher educational system in the Habsburg Monarchy: the Entwurf ( 1849-50) and the birth of modern gymnasia, Vienna university as the model for the creation and/or modernization of national universities in the Habsburg Empire, the influence of the French educational pattern in Rumania,
- The partial autonomization of full fledged, three-level national educational systems (primary, secondary and higher education) in Austria, Croatia, the Czech lands, Hungary, Poland (Galicia and Russian Congress Poland) and Rumania during the second half of the 19th century, the political aspects of the linguistic conflict in Czech. Hungarian and Polish education, State control and denominational influence in schooling, education as a focus of ethnic conflict, the problem of the freedom of teaching and the relative autonomy of teaching corporations (university staff, Catholic congregations, privileged elite groups)
- the modernization of other national agencies of learning: museums, learned societies, Academies of Science, libraries, theaters, civic and professional associations of learned elites
- the persistent influence of the West: the educational functions of studies in the West and trends of student migrations abroad in the 19th and the early 20th century, the role of Vienna, Berlin and Paris universities in the training of Central European learned elites

3. Social efficiency and group differentials in Central European elementary and lower (advanced primary) schooling.
- the duality of all pre-socialist schooling provisions: opposition between popular and elite education, primary and advanced primary schooling as educational dead ends,
- the organization of elementary education in various Central European societies, networks of elementary and higher primary (Burgerschulen) schools.
- State and/or Church or local community control, shared responsibilities in funding and management, the relative autonomy and social status of teachers, (salaries, training, Normal schools), the progress of (incomplete) secularization of lower education in presocialist regimes, the implementation of policies of obligatory elementary schooling in various countries
- collective investment in primary education: funding and subsidies as part of State budgets in Austria-Hungary and in some of its successor states, the development of school networks: numbers of schools, teachers, classes and their regional distribution, the subsistence of private (not State controlled) primary schooling: cheders of Orthodox Jewry-. secret family) education in Russian occupied Poland, etc.
- primary schooling and ethnic-national conflict in Hungary, the Czech lands, Poland and elsewhere, the educational role of national Churches in Slovakia, among Serbs, Croatians, Rumanians and Ruthenians in Hungary, Ukrainians, Germans, Jews in Poland, etc.
- the social uses of basic literacy and its development through primary schooling: literacy as supported by religious practice and learning among Jews (and some Protestants), economic modernization, urbanization and the growth of demand for literacy, the press, modern literary industry and political democratization as factors of the demand for literacy, State and civil society as suppliers of primary literacy
- global inequalities among Central European societies in terms of the spread of literacy and the supply of elementary education, the problem of the levels of literacy (reading and writing skills) and the methodological difficulties of measuring, attempts at some statistical comparisons among countries
- class sex, denomination and ethnic group specific inequalities of levels of literacy: persistence of low scores for women, trends of Jewish and German over-schooling in minority or Diaspora situations, relative advance of some Protestants, urban and rural differences, etc.

4. Elite education (a): the gymnasium? and other forms of secondary education
- gymnasia followed everywhere a largely similar (Prussian) pattern of classical secondary education with 8 classes with Latin (and Greek), Maths, national literature and one (or two) Western languages (German or/and French) as main subjects, Matura as precondition for entry into most universities and other institutions of higher education, other forms of (less prestigious) secondary schooling: vocational (especially commercial), Realschulen, etc. the social functions of Matura and lower levels (4-6-8 classes) of the gymnasium: certification of elite membership often consecrated by legal or customary entitlements (like shorter military service -as "volunteer" -in the Habsburg Empire, right to become reserve officer or to wear a sword and to fight duels
- Satisfactionsfahigkeit - to admission into salons), entitlements to positions in various echelons of the civil service
- schooling authorities and the control of teaching: directors, inspectors, and professors, social position of professors in gymnasia depended on their civil status (lay or ecclesiastical), subjects taught, type of degree and the prestige of the school, State control and the leverage of Church and local civil authorities -collective investment in gymnasia: size of subsidies in State (or Church and municipal) budgets, salaries of professors tuition fees, number, regional distribution, size of schools (by average number of pupils), size of the student population by classes, drop-out rate, etc. for various countries and dates
- the global inclusiveness of secondary education: estimation of proportions of pupils by national/regional population units and/or by age groups, same indications for those passing the Matura for various countries and dates, some Central European countries (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary) as cases of Western type quantitative and qualitative over education -in spite of relative economic backwardness
- the social inequalities in secondary schooling by social strata, ethnicity, denomination, some statistical indicators for various countries and dates, the cases of relative Jewish, Lutheran and German over-schooling, its causes and consequences for the internal structure of elites in contemporary Central Europe, the problem of ethnic, or segregation, cases of local or global policies of numerous clauses in gymnasia (especially under right extremist rule)

5. Elite education b): Universities and higher education
- a historic latecomer of the educational scenery in Central Europe, agencies of higher education were created or reached Western standards only in the Sate Hungary, the Czech lands:, Croatia, etc. ) or Berlin and Paris (for Rumania, and Poland), strong persisting links with and influence of the West upon Central European higher education (Medicine and Theology), Polytechnics or Polytechnical universities (Brno, Budapest, Prague, Vienna, etc. ) and vocational academies and colleges (including colleges for military and ecclesiastical training), degrees granted, the training and selection of staff, the constitution of academic hierarchies, degrees and the system of professional entitlements and peripheral universities and their regional map for various countries and measuring the groups for various countries and dates
- the disciplinary structure of the student population for various countries and dates as an indication of achieved socio-economic development, the nature of the employment market of the ruling and the middle classes and the intellectual hierarchy of competencies expected from the elite, the special problem of the disciplinary hierarchy in the Faculties of Arts and Sciences
-social class specific, denominational and ethnic selectivity of higher education, cases for different countries and dates: a privilege of educated groups in all pre-socialist societies, higher education also promoted a few fractions of lower-middle strata or marginal groups into elite positions, cases of the Czech and German propertied peasantry, of assimilated Jewry in Austria, Hungary and elsewhere, of the urban "servant petty bourgeoisie", of petty State or semi-public employees, attempt at some statistical comparisons

6. Case studies of agencies and patterns of education and learning in several/ countries, provinces, denominational and ethnic groups (optional)
- traditional versus modern schooling: in the Jewish Orthodoxy (Yeshivot, rabbinical seminaries, family education)
- the general problem of Jewish over-schooling and its historical incidence on the internal structure and ideological polarization of local elites
- the prevalence of the Prussian-German (and Austrian) pattern in Central European education and the complementary influence of French, British and Italian patterns
-German as against national universities in East-Central Europe: the cases of Brno, Czernovitz, Prague and historical occurrences of Germanization of the universities of Pests Cracow and Lwov (Lemberg) in the 19th century
- research and erudition as pursued in universities and learned societies (especially at national academies of science)
- musical education and the market of music production-artistic education and the artistic market (theater, painting, applied arts, etc.)



CRC-Curriculum Resource Center
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Modified: June, 1996


Kar_EduLerCE.W96Hist.v3

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