MODERNIZATION AND CHANGES IN THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF EAST CENTRAL EUROPE (1867-1918)
Winter Term 1995
Peter Hanak
Maria Kovacs
Department of History
CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY




Course Description
1. Restoration and Compromise

After the 1848 Revolution - Centralized absolutistic Austrian Empire. Why Neoabsolutism? The supranational state idea - the Gesamtstaat. The Austrian "political" nation versus the linguistic-cultural nations. Autocratic and bureaucratic state on the capitalist economic and the semifeudal social basis. The international environment and the liability of the internal order. Two impossibilities: the perpetuation of the military absolutism and of a new revolution. Realpolitik: the Compromise with constitutionalism. Why with Hungary? Italy - Germany - Poland Hungary - the reorganization of the Habsburg Monarchy.

2. Political and Social Structure of the Monarchy

The political structure. Joint affairs and jointly administered affairs. Parliamentarism with absolutistic remnants. The Emperor. The regulation of the national question: a) Austria, b) Hungary, c) Compromise with Croatia. The dualistic system and the non master nations. Inner and international consolidation. Causes of the stability, tranquillity, prosperity.

3. Modernization in Central Europe

The problem: Modernization and the ancient regime. Modernization as danger for the backward small nations. Types of the solution. Institutional implementation of the capitalist economy. Subsequent conflicts. Advantages of the common market common custom's are - and obstacles for the backward provinces. Hungary on the common market: facts, myths, debates. Modernization, free trade capitalism - and the decline of the landowner nobility (gentry). Capitalism of the "aliens" . Achievements, results of Modernization by the turn of the l9th century. Civilization and social backwardness.

4. Social Changes I - the Middle Classes

Capitalism - liberalism and the restratification of the upper and middle classes Austria: traditional (national) and bourgeois middle class. Transformation of the bureaucracy beginnings of modern etatism. The officers corps of the Army Hungary: decline of the old noble middle class - the "gentry-problem". The class of civil servants - status versus position. The rise of the bourgeois middle class: entrepreneurs, haute finance, professionals. The Jews in the social hierarchy. The "Jewish-problem." Social position and attitudes of the petty bourgeoisie.

5. New Ideas - Neoconservativism

Social and cultural criticism of liberalism and capitalism. The roots of neoconservativism. Agrarian ideas and movements in Europe (Bund der Landwirte, Association of the Landowners and the Farmers). Anti liberalism-anti socialism. Awakening of nationalism in Austria. State patriotism versus German nationalism. Emerging antisemitism in the Monarchy. Frustrated and successful assimilation of the Jews. Different patterns and types of assimilation and antisemitism: Galicia, Bohemia, Austria and Germany, Hungary. Appearance of racist thoughts and movements.

6. Pangermanism

Germany after the Unification. Political forces - new ideas. Growing expansionism. Drive toward East and colonialism. Association of the Pan-Germans (Alldeutscher Verband). Program, propaganda, philosophy. Germany on the road of Imperialism.

7. Panslavism

The origins - 1848. Slavofilism and the Russian foreign policy. Panslavic congresses. Panslavism and antisemitism. Panslavism and the fate of the Habsburg Monarchy. Response of the Central European Slavic nation to Russian panslavism.

8. Social Changes II. - the Lower Classes

Formation of the working class - the composition: German over representation of the skilled workers national character of the local unskilled workers. The trade unions the first socialist parties. Stratification of the peasantry - according to regions, type of farming wealth and status. - Types of the Austrian-Bohemian and the Hungarian peasants. The farmer, - the self-sustaining free holder, - the serf-type poor peasants, the tenant - the laborers and servants. Forms of agrarian socialism - Chiliastic (millenarian)) movements in Hungary, peasant revolt in Galicia, Rumania.

9-10. Everyday life in Central Europe

New form: the Metropolis. Elements of the everyday life: houses apartments, home culture - family life. Dissolution of the bourgeois family. Revolt of the women and the children. Revolt of the young generation. Changes in the eating and dressing habits: reform-dressing - natureopathy (natural cure) and body culture. Changes in the sexual habits - Morals of the metropolis. Entertainments. The Cafe, theater, operettas, sports.

The country towns. Slower development - Strong traditionalism - aftermath of the Biedermeier and Historism. Cafes and inns. The village - ruling traditions in everyday life determined by the seasons. Decline of the perasant culture under the surface of the flourishing folklore. Plenty and misery in the villages of East Central Europe.

11. The International Situation and Central Europe

Changes of the international politics - Conflicts of the Great Powers. The conflicts and he rival forces. Two imperial Blocks. The liability of the balance of power. Germany in the colonial expansion. The Habsburg Monarchy and the reorganization of the Balkans.

Growing social and national conflicts in Austria and Hungary - Uncertainty and unpreparadenes before World War I.

12. Social Aspects of Integration and Disintegration

Cohesive forces in the survival of the Hapsburg Monarchy. The dynasty and its aristocracy. The army and the bureaucracy. The upper middle class. The centripetal forces. The oppressed nations. The irredentas (Italians, Serbs, Rumanians). Revolutionary movements. Ambiguous position of the churches, the Jewry and the social democracy. Growing influence of the separatist movements.

Required Reading:
C.A. Macartney: The Habsburg Monarchy 1790-1918. London, 1969. pp 426-585, 687­809.
Robert Kann: The Multinational Empire. Vol. II. New York. 1950. pp 88-207.
A History of Hungary. ed. by Ervin Pamlenyi. Budapest, 1973. Chapter VI-VII. by P.Hanák. pp. 287-418.
E.J. Hobsbawm: The Age of Capital 1848-1875. London, 1975. pp. 187-294.
Oscar Jászi: The Dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Chicago, 1929. pp. 133­184?, 220-365.
Carl E. Schorske: Fine de Siecle in Vienna. Politics and Culture. New York, 1980. pp.. 116-180.
Z.A.B. Zeman: The Break-up of the Habsburg Empire 1914-1918. London, 1961. pp.. 65.

Suggested Reading:
Arthur J. May: The Hapsburg Monarchy 1867-1914. Cambridge, Mass, 1960. pp.. 305­385.
The Penguin Atlas of World History. Vol. II. London. 1966. pp. 62-122.
R. Kann: The Multinational Empire, Vol. I. The pertinent chapter.

Evaluation:
Seminar activity
Written essay


CRC-Curriculum Resource Center
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Revised: May 1996

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