1. Comparative overview of the different regions of Europe in the second half of the 19th century. Urban culture versus rural culture. Modernization as threat and stimulus.
2. Survey of turn of the century art. The challenge of Modernism in the arts. Stylistic pluralism. Major stylistic trends of the age (Realism, Naturalism, Symbolism, Art Nouveau).
3. Antagonism between the art establishment and experimenters. The role of official forums. Art markets. The increasing influence of the press. Regions of Europe.
4. The ideological background to experimental art. A sea-change in artists attitudes. The discovery of the vernacular. The discovery of the exotic. The revival of tradition.
5. Survey of Central European art. The main regional art centers (Munich, Vienna). The development of national art centers (Prague, Cracow/Warsaw, Budapest).
6. Generational change: the revolt of youth in the nineties in Central Europe. The Vienna Secession. The breakthrough of Modernism in literature and the fine arts.
7. Revolution in bourgeois life-style. The villa, the family house garden cities. Rationalism in architecture. Engineers versus architects.
8. Prague, Cracow and Budapest: individual and / or national versions of Art Nouveau.
9. The coming of the avant-garde. The birth of Expressionism and early modern " isms " in Western Europe: Post-Impressionism, Primitivism, Cubism, Abstraction.
10. Central European avant-garde before the First World War in Vienna, Prague, Cracow, Budapest.
11. Art Nouveau between the wars. The European role of Surrealism, Contructivism, Bauhaus.
Kenneth Clark, Civilization. London, Murray 1969. / +many later editions/
Ernst Gombrich, The Story of Art. London, Phaidon 1963 /+many later editions/
W.E. Mosse, Liberal Europe - The Age of Bourgeois Realism 1848-1875. London, Thames and Hudson 1974.
Norman Stone, Europe Transformed 1878-1919. London, Fontana Press 1983.
Carl E. Schorske, Fin de Sciecle Vienna -New York, Knopf. 1980.
William M. Johnston, The Austrian Mind Univ. of California Press. Berkeley, Los Angeles. 1972.
A Golden Age -- Art and Society in Hungary 1896-1914. Corvina, Bp. London, Miami 1989/1990.
Kirk Varnedoe, Vienna 1900. Art, Architecture, Design. New York. 1986.
Alan Sked, The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire 1815-1918. Longman, London 1990.
Edward Timms, Karl Kraus. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, London, 1986.
Steven Beller, Vienna and the Jews 1867-1938. Cambridge Univ. Press. 1989.
James Shedel, Art and Society - The New Art Movement in Vienna,1897-1914. SPOSS. Paolo Alto 1981.
Raymond Williams, Culture and Society. The Hogarth Press, London,1958, 1982.
Ray Monk, Ludwig Wittgenstein. Vintage. London 1990.
M.L. Rozenblit, The Jews of Vienna. 1867-1914. Albany, New York. 1983.
Robin Okey, Eastern Europe 1740-1985. Huchinson University Library, London, 1987.
Elaine Showalter, Sexual anarchy. Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. Virago, London, 1992.
Barbara Tuchman, The Proud tower -- A portrait of the world before the war 1890-1914. Hamish Hamilton, London 1966. Macmillan Press Limited 1980. Papermac. 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1988.
Austrian Studies -- l. Vienna 1900. ed. Edvard Timms + Ritchie Robertson, Edinburgh Univ. Press 1990.
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