Winter Term 1994
Dinu C. Giurescu
Department of History

Course Description

I. International politics in South East Europe, 1774-1914.
l. Main events: wars, revolutions, political settlements.
2. Ratio of forces between the major powers; the evolution of the frontiers.
3. Romanian Principalities - Romania, at crossroads between the Russian, Austrian, Austro/Hungarian, and Ottoman empires.
4. The interaction between internal and international developments in Romanian history.

II. The sequence of main political events in Romanian history, 1774-1914.
1. The last decades of the "Phanariot period".
2. The uprising of 1821. The start towards a modern administration (1822-1847).
3. The revolution of 1848- 1849.
4. The Union of the Romanian principalities. Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza (1859-1866). Structural reforms.
5. The war of Independence (1877-1878).
6. The Kingdom of Romania. King Carol I (1866-1914). The continuation of the structural reforms.

III. The building of the modern state.
1 Evolution between the last decades of the 18th century and the 1850s . Enlightenment and new pro reform ideas. The first written constitutions; the legislative-assemblies; changes in the administration; the beginnings of the national army.
2. Ideas and concepts set forth during the 1848-1849 revolution.
3. The Romanian Adhoc assemblies of 1857.
4. The Union of the Principalities and the structural reforms during the reign of prince Cuza: expropriations of the Church's rural properties; agrarian reform; various economic, administrative, and judicial laws; educations; political life.
5. Continuation of the structural reforms during the rule of King Carol I. Political life.
6. The Romanians outside Romania's borders in the second half of the 19th century.

IV. Social History.
The main social classes and categories toward the end of the 18th century. Differentiation's within each group:
1.a) Landlords and peasants in the 18th century: juridical abolition of the serfdom in Wallachia and Moldavia; laws regulating the relations between landlords and peasants. Reforms in the Austrian empire during the reign of Joseph II. The revolt in the Apuseni area (Transylvania) lead by Horia, Closca, and Crisan (1784).
b). Agrarian relations in the first half of the l9th century. Claims for land expropriation during the 1848/9 revolution. Abolition of serfdom in the Austrian empire after the 1848/9 revolution.
c). The rural law of 1864 in Romania and subsequent developments. The peasant revolt of 1907.
2. The bourgeoisie.
3. The proletariat.

V. Economics.
1. Agriculture. Traditional techniques: improvements; weather conditions. The expansion of farmed land. Output of different crops. The reduction of pasture and hazfields. Development of livestock.
2. Crafts and their downtrend.
3. Railways
4. Railways and roads.
5. The introduction of a national monetary system; organization of a network of banks and credit institutions; the development of the internal market.
6. Foreign trade.

CRC-Curriculum Resource Center
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Modified: May, 1996


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