Fall 1995
Sorin Antohi
Department of History

Course Description

This course is a survey of two centuries of Romanian history, from the 1770s to the 1990s, in a comparative, both regional and European, Its ambition is to familiarize the students with a series of specific ideas, events and interpretations by focusing on the interplay of the internal and external forces that have shaped the history of Romania. While the bibliography of the course includes, for obvious reasons, mainly English language secondary literature, the lectures will make extensive use of Romanian sources, as well as of Romanian historiography.

Course Requirements

Your progress in the course will be evaluated as follows

- Midterm Examination, November -- 45%
- Term Paper, December -- 45%
- Class Participation -- 10%

Your regular attendance and participation are expected. The Midterm Examination consist of questions and comments related to the weekly lectures. The Midterm Examination will be taken in class: students will have to answer five questions related to the topics discussed during the first half of the term. The Term Paper (ca. 20 pages, written at home, and due about two weeks before the day classes end) has to be a more persona1 project, related to the course, but also to comparable aspects in the history of another country.

Required Readings
Vlad Georgescu, The Rumanians. A History. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1991.
Keith Hitchins, Rumania, 1866-1947. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Irina Livezeanu, Cultural Politics in Greater Romania. Regionalism, Nation Building, and Ethnic Struggic, 1918-1930. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, l995.
Michael Shafir, Romania: Politics, Economy, Society. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner, 1985.
Katherine Verdery, National Ideology Under Socialism. Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceausescu's Romania. Berkeley, etc.: University of California Press, 1991.
Leon Volovici, Nationalist Ideology and anti-Semitism: The Case of Romanian Intellectuals In the 1930s . Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1991.

Suggested Readings
Daniel Chirot, Social Change in a Peripheral Society: The Creation of a Balkan Colony. New York: Academic Press, 1976.
Kenneth Jowitt, Revolutionary Breakthroughs and National Development: The Case of Romania, 1944-1965. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1971.
Kenneth Jowitt (ed.), Social Change in Romania, 1860-1940 Berkeley: University of California, Institute of International Studies, 1978.
David Turnock, The Romanian Economy in the Twentieth Century. New York: St.Martin's Press, 1986.

Course Agenda

1. Introduction.
The origins of modern Romania, 1776-1829. The last Phanariots. Enlightenment in Transylvania: popular revolt and intellectuals definitions of ethnicity.

2. Reforms and Revolutions.
Boyar reforms in the Danubian Principalities. Russian occupation and modernization: the Organic Statutes. Discovering the West 1848 in the Romanian lands.

3. Moldova an Wallachia: From Union to Independence.
The European context of the 1859 union. The reign of Alexandru Ioan Cuza, 1859-1866. State reason vs. national sentiment: the coup of 1866 and the reign of Carol I Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen up to the War of Independence (1877-1878).

4. From Independence to World War l.
The Romanian Kingdom: 1881.Capitalist development and industrial modernization. Dilemmas of geopolitics: choosing the right allies.

5. Transylvania, 1848-1914.
The aftermath of 1848. The Ausgleich of 1867. Magyar Kulturkampf and Romanian resistance. The Memorandum: the failure of loyalism.

6. The Romanian World War I.

7. Greater Romania .
1918: Transylvania and Bessarabia join the Kingdom of Romania. Trianon. Building Greater Romania: state, economy, and society. The minorities. From parliamentary democracy to authoritarianism: royal dictatorship, national legionary state, military dictatorship.

8. Romania in World War II.
Loosing ground: 1939-1940. The war against the Soviet Union. Changing camps: 1944-1945. The Romanian war effort. Preparing popular democracy: 1944-1947.

9. Communist Romania.
The Communist takeover. The totalitarian project: 1947-1964. The thaw: 1964-1971. Neo-Stalinism and national communism: 1971-1989.

10. 1989 and After.
Revolution? Coup? Reform and restoration. Romania in the 1990s. 'Back to Europe'.

11. Romanian Historiography.

Main trends. Historical myths. Historical consciousness and national identity.

CRC-Curriculum Resource Center
CEU Budapest, Hungary
Modified: June, 1996


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