Academic Year 1997 (Fall Semester)
Lecturer Anna Leander
CEU Department Southeast European Studies

Anna Leander
Professor, CEU


This course gives an introduction to modern Turkish politics by focusing on a central tension in the Turkish political life, namely that between secularism and Islam. The aim of the course is double. First, it tries to provide a general introduction to politics in modern Turkey. Focusing on religion it aims at supporting the claim that the tension between religion and secularism is central by showing how it has been present in the key (national and foreign) policy choices in modern Turkey. Secondly, the course is a more general statement on the role of ideas and world views in shaping politics. By showing, in a very concrete way, how the tension between Islam and secularism has shaped understanding and arguments about politics it tells a story which is not only about Turkish politics. It is also a story about the important, but changing, multiple and complex influence that Islam (or other world views) has on concrete policy making.

In a first section, the course shows how the tension between Islam and secularism has been present and how it has shaped the understanding of politics historically. In a second section, it analysis how electoral victory of a religious party has led to a reformulation of the understanding of what Turkish society is, what Turkish politics should be about and what place Turkey has in the world. In each of the sections a constant effort will be made to link the tensions in understanding of politics to the actual practice of modern Turkish politics.

Requirements (2 credits):

Students are expected to participate actively in the weekly seminar, i.e. read the weekly readings, be capable of discussing them (45% of final grade). They will also be expected to make a book review (25% of final grade) on a book related to the course and a short paper (min. 2500 words; 30% of final grade). Students are also expected to familiarize themselves with the journal New Perspectives on Turkey (CEU library), the article collection available in the programme office, and they are encouraged to consult the reviews available in the academy of science (The Turkish Studies Association Bulletin, Turkish Review, The Middle East Journal, The Journal of Middle East Studies, etc.).

Course outline

Readings marked * are copied in the reader (and are required readings), those marked # are in the programme collection, and those marked + can be borrowed from me. The rest are suggested and available in the library.

0. Introductory meeting:

A short introduction on Islam and politics

John Esposito, Islam and Politics (Syracuse UP, 1991,, 1st ed. 1984).

Mehmet Özay, Islamic Identity and Development (London: 1990)

Islam and secularism: the central tension in the political legitimacy of modern Turkey

1. Ataturkism: the attempt to create a secular republic (1923-1970)

*Bernard Lewis, The emergence of modern Turkey (Oxford UP, 1961), chap. viii and xii.

Stephane Yérasimos, "The monoparty period", in Schick and Tonak eds, Turkey in Transition.

2. The return of religious policies (1970-)

#Jacob Landau, "The MSP"

+ Chrisitian Rumpf, Laizismus und Religionsfreiheit in der Turkei (Stiftung Wissenshaft unde Politik, 1987).

Clement H. Dodd, The Crisis of Turkish Democracy (1990).

chaps on MNP, MSP, and REFAH in Heper and Landau eds, Political Parties and Democracy in Turkey (1991).

For both 1 and 2 relevant chapters from the following books are recommended.

Binaz Toprak, Islam and Political Development in Turkey (Leiden: Brill, 1981).

Feroz Ahmad, The making of modern Turkey

Ça_lar Keyder, State and class in Turkey

_erif Mardin, Religion and Social Change in Modern Turkey

Erik Zürcher, Turkey a modern history

The REFAH and the attempts to revise Turkish legitimacy

3. The meaning of "Turkish" and the role of the army

*Michael Gunter, The Kurds in Turkey: A Political Dilemma (Westview, 1990), pp. ??

Lale Yalcin-Heckman, "Tribal organisation and local political processes", in Finkel and Sirman eds.Turkish State Turkish Society (Routledge, 1990).

Gerard Chaliand, A people without a country (1990)

David McDowall, A modern history of the Kurds (IB Tauris 1996).

+ Riva Kastorýano, "L'integration politiqe par l'exterieur. La communaté juive de Turquie", Revue Francaise de Science Politique (Oct. 1992), 786-801.

# Walter F. Weiker, A history of the Jews in Turkey

Stanford Shaw, The Jews in the OE and in the Turkish Republic (1991).

Alexis Alexandris, The Greek Minority of Istanbul and Greek Turkish Relations 1918-1974 (Athens, 1992).

Jean-Francois Bayart, "The Alivi Question in modern Turkey", in Carre and Ahmad eds. Islam and the State in the World Today (New Delih: Manohar, 1989, 322.10917671).

* William Hale, "The Turkish Army in Politics", in Finkel and Sirman eds, Turkish State, Turkish Society.

William Hale, Turkish Politics and the Military (Routledge, 1994)

Mehmet Ali Birand, Steel Jackets

The generals' coup (Brassey, 1987).

4. The public private division and the role of the state in the economy

* Deniz Kandiyoti, "Islam, Nationalism and Women in Turkey", in Kandiyoti (ed) Women, Islam and the State (London: Macmillan, 1991).

_irin Tekeli, "Women in the changing political associations of the 1980s", in Finkel and Sirman eds.

Nükhet Sirman, "feminism in Turkey. A short history", in New Perspectives on Turkey 3/1, 1989, 1-34.

#Ay_e Kad_o_öu, "Women's subordination in Turkey: Is Islam Really the villain", MEJ, vol. 48, no. 4, 1994.

Nilüfer Göle, Modern Harem,

* Metin Heper, "Interest Group Politics in post-1980 Turkey. Lingering Monism", in Heper ed., Strong state and economic interest groups (Walter de Gruyter, 1991).

Henry Barkey, The State and the Industrialisation Crisis (Boulder, 1990).

Ar_canl_ and Tosun eds, The Political Economy of Turkey (Macmillan, 1990).

Anna Leander, "Robin Hood Politics", Review of international political economy, 3/1 1996.

+Insel Ahmet, La Turquie entre l'ordre et le development (Harmattan, 1985).

Atila Eralp, "The politics of Turkish development strategies" in Finkel and Sirman eds, Turkish State Turkish society.

5. The place of Turkey in the World

Matny and Graig, Turkey between East and West: The challenges for a rising regional power (Westview, 1996).

#Phil Robins, "Between sentiment and self-interest: Turkey's policy towards Azerbaijan and Central Asian states", MEJ, vol. 47, no. 4, 1993.

Katarina Dalacoura, "Turkey and the Middle East in the 1980s" Millennium vol. 19, no. 2 (1990).

# Oral Sander, "Turkish Foreign Policy: Forces of Continuity and of Change", Turkish Review (?)

# Seyfi Ta_han, "Turkish Foreign Policy in the Balkans", Turkish Review (?).

Tozun Bacheli, Greek Turkish Relations since 1955 (Westview, 1990).

Dimitri Constas ed., The Greek Turkish Conflict in the 1990s (Macmillan, 1991).

# Meltem Müftüler, "Turkey and the European Community: An uneasy relationship, Turkish Review. (?)

Canan Balkr and Allan Williams eds, Turkey and Europe (Pinter, 1993).

#Sabri Sayari, "Turkey: The changing European Security Environment and the Gulf Crisis" MEJ, vol 46, no. 1 1990.

#Mahmut Bali Aykan, "Turkish Perspectives on Turkish US Relations ceoncerning Persian Gulf Ecuritt in the Post-Cold War Era", MEJ vol. 50, no. 3 1996.

+ Gareth Winrow, "Turkey in Post-Soviet Central Asia" (Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1995).

6. Conclusion:

Presentation and discussion of the final papers